OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 2 — Jan. 21, 2008
  • pp: 1174–1179

Femtosecond laser direct writing of metallic microstructures by photoreduction of silver nitrate in a polymer matrix

Shoji Maruo and Tatsuya Saeki  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 2, pp. 1174-1179 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (730 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Continuous silver microstructures were produced by three-dimensional (3-D) direct laser writing using a femtosecond-pulsed laser beam with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) films containing silver ions. The lines drawn by scanning a tightly focused laser beam ranged from 200 nm to 1.7 µm. Using a sample solution of high density of silver nitrate, a continuous silver line with a resistivity of 3.48×10-7 Ωm was produced. Not only 3-D microstructures such as pyramidal models but also hybrid microstructures comprising polymer and silver lines were demonstrated. The 3-D direct laser writing of metallic microstructures has potential for application to 3-D electrical wiring of electronic devices and MEMS devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: September 27, 2007
Revised Manuscript: November 29, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 29, 2007
Published: January 15, 2008

Shoji Maruo and Tatsuya Saeki, "Femtosecond laser direct writing of metallic microstructures by photoreduction of silver nitrate in a polymer matrix," Opt. Express 16, 1174-1179 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249-251 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133-135 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533-539 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka and S. Kawata, "Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426-1428 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures," Opt. Express 13, 1275-1280 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996). [CrossRef]
  17. C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited