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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 20 — Sep. 29, 2008
  • pp: 15903–15914

Fabrication and phase modulation in organic single-crystalline configurationally locked, phenolic polyene OH1 waveguides

Christoph Hunziker, Seong-Ji Kwon, Harry Figi, Mojca Jazbinsek, and Peter Günter  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 20, pp. 15903-15914 (2008)

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A novel and promising technique for the fabrication of electro-optically active single crystalline organic waveguides from 2-{3-(4-hydroxystyryl)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene}malononitrile (OH1) is presented. OH1 is an interesting material for photonic applications due to the large electro-optic coefficients (r333=109±4 pm/V at 632.8 nm) combined with a relatively high crystal symmetry (orthorhombic with point group mm2). Due to the very favorable growth characteristics, large-area (> 150 mm2) single crystalline thin films with very good optical quality and thickness between 0.05-10 µm have been grown on amorphous glass substrates. We have developed and optimized optical lithography and reactive ion etching processes for the fabrication of wire optical waveguides with dimensions of w×h=3.4×3.5 µm2 and above. The technique is capable of producing low loss integrated optical waveguides having propagation losses of 2 dB/cm with a high refractive index contrast between core-cladding and core-substrate of Δn=1.23 and 0.72, respectively at 980 nm. Electro-optic phase modulation in these waveguides has been demonstrated at 632.8 nm and 852 nm. Calculations show that with an optimized electrode configuration the half-wave voltage×length product Vπ·L can be reduced from 8.4 Vcm, as obtained in our device, to 0.3 Vcm in the optimized case. This allows for the fabrication of sub-1 V half-wave voltage, organic electro-optic modulators with highly stable chromophore orientation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
(130.4110) Integrated optics : Modulators

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: July 25, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 12, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 15, 2008
Published: September 22, 2008

Christoph Hunziker, Seong-Ji Kwon, Harry Figi, Mojca Jazbinsek, and Peter Günter, "Fabrication and phase modulation in organic single-crystalline configurationally locked, phenolic polyene OH1 waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 15903-15914 (2008)

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