OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 20 — Sep. 29, 2008
  • pp: 15915–15922

Optical 4×4 hitless silicon router for optical Networks-on-Chip (NoC)

Nicolás Sherwood-Droz, Howard Wang, Long Chen, Benjamin G. Lee, Aleksandr Biberman, Keren Bergman, and Michal Lipson  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 20, pp. 15915-15922 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (743 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate here a spatially non-blocking optical 4×4 router with a footprint of 0.07 mm2 for use in future integrated photonic interconnection networks. The device is dynamically switched using thermo-optically tuned silicon microring resonators with a wavelength shift to power ratio of 0.25nm/mW. The design can route four optical inputs to four outputs with individual bandwidths of up to 38.5 GHz. All tested configurations successfully routed a single-wavelength laser and provided a maximum extinction ratio larger than 20 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices
(130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: July 31, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 17, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 19, 2008
Published: September 22, 2008

Nicolás Sherwood-Droz, Howard Wang, Long Chen, Benjamin G. Lee, Aleksandr Biberman, Keren Bergman, and Michal Lipson, "Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Express 16, 15915-15922 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "On the Design of a Photonic Network-on-Chip," in Networks-on-Chip (2007), pp. 53-64.
  2. R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, W. Shih-Yuan, and R. S. Williams, "Nanoelectronic and Nanophotonic Interconnect," Proc. IEEE 96, 230-247 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Lexau, X. Zheng, J. Bergey, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, R. Drost, and J. Cunningham, "CMOS Integration of Capacitive, Optical, and Electrical Interconnects," International Interconnect Technology Conference, IEEE 2007, 78-80 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Briere, B. Girodias, Y. Bouchebaba, G. Nicolescu, F. Mieyeville, F. Gaffiot, and I. O. Connor, "System level assessment of an optical NoC in an MPSoC platform," in Proceedings of the conference on Design, automation and test in Europe (EDA Consortium, Nice, France, 2007).
  5. B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, "Multiple-wavelength integrated photonic networks based on microring resonator devices," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 112-120 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15, 11934-11941 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. A. Kaneko, S. A. Sato, and Y. A. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," Photon. Technol. Lett., IEEE 11, 691-693 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. A. K. Y. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," Photon. Technol. Lett. IEEE 12, 323-325 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Zhang, M. Yang, Y. Jiang, E. Regentova, and E. Lu, "Generalized Wavelength Routed Optical Micronetwork in Network-on-Chip," Proceedings of the 18 th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (2006).
  10. W. J. Dally, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Networks (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).
  11. A. Shacham, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic NoC for DMA Communications in Chip Multiprocessors," in 15th Annual IEEE Symposium on High-Performance Interconnects (HOTI 2007)(2007), pp. 29-38.
  12. H. Wang, M. Petracca, A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, L. P. Carloni, and K. Bergman, "Nanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications," in Optical Fiber communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference(2008), pp. 1-3.
  13. C. R. Pollock, and M. Lipson, Integrated Photonics (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003).
  14. S. N. Magdalena, L. Tao, W. Xuan, and R. P. Roberto, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. W. M. J. Green, H. F. Hamann, L. Sekaric, M. J. Rooks, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact reconfigurable silicon optical devices using micron-scale localized thermal heating," in Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007. OFC/NFOEC 2007. (2007), pp. 1-3.
  16. M. Lipson, "Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip," Photonics in Switching, 67-68 (2006).
  17. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. IEEE 16, 2514-2516 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, I. Rendina, and P. M. Sarro, "Thermo-optic effect exploitation in silicon microstructures," Sens. Actuators A: Phys. 71, 19-26 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Geuzebroek, E. J. Klein, H. Kelderman, and A. Driessen, "Wavelength tuning and switching of a thermooptic microring resonator," Proc. ECIO, pp. 395-398 (2003).
  20. F. Xu and A. W. Poon, "Silicon cross-connect filters using microring resonator coupled multimode-interference-based waveguide crossings," Opt. Express 16, 8649-8657 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, "Maximizing the Thermo-Optic Tuning Range of Silicon Photonic Structures," in Photonics in Switching (2007), pp. 67-68.
  22. N. Han-Yong, R. W. Michael, L. Daqun, W. Xuan, M. Jose, R. P. Roberto, and P. Kachesh, "4 x 4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators," Opt. Eng. 47, 044601 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited