OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 20 — Sep. 29, 2008
  • pp: 16093–16103

Short-wavelength MEMS-tunable VCSELs

Garrett D. Cole, Elaine Behymer, Tiziana C. Bond, and Lynford L. Goddard  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 20, pp. 16093-16103 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.016093


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (525 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present electrically-injected MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with emission wavelengths below 800 nm. Operation in this wavelength range, near the oxygen A-band from 760–780 nm, is attractive for absorption-based optical gas sensing. These fully-monolithic devices are based on an oxide-aperture AlGaAs epitaxial structure and incorporate a suspended dielectric Bragg mirror for wavelength tuning. By implementing electrostatic actuation, we demonstrate the potential for tuning rates up to 1 MHz, as well as a wide wavelength tuning range of 30 nm (767–737 nm).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
(230.4685) Optical devices : Optical microelectromechanical devices

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: July 11, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 16, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 16, 2008
Published: September 25, 2008

Citation
Garrett D. Cole, Elaine Behymer, Tiziana C. Bond, and Lynford L. Goddard, "Short-wavelength MEMS-tunable VCSELs," Opt. Express 16, 16093-16103 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-16093


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. C. Hovde and C. A. Parsons, "Wavelength modulation detection of water vapor with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," Appl. Opt. 36, 1135-1138, (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. Linnerud, P. Kaspersen, and T. Jæger, "Gas monitoring in the process industry using diode laser spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 297-305 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. V. Weldon, J. O'Gorman, J. J. Pérez-Camacho, and J. Hegarty, "Oxygen sensing using single-frequency GaAs-AlGaAs DFB laser diodes and VCSELs," Electron. Lett. 32, 219-221 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, R. Shau, M. Ortsiefer, J. Rosskopf, and M. C. Amann, "Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) at 1.68 ?m with up to 5 MHz repetition rate," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 101-106 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Harris, Jr., "Tunable long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers: the engine of next generation optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1145-1160 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, B. Kögel, S. Jatta, H. Halbritter, and P. Meissner, "CO and CO2 spectroscopy using a 60 nm broadband tunable MEMS-VCSEL at 1.55um," Opt. Lett. 31, 3170-3172 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, S. Jatta, M. Maute, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, M. Lackner, M. Schwarzott, F. Winter, and P. Meissner, "Simultaneous spectroscopy of NH3 and CO using a > 50 nm continuously tunable MEMS-VCSEL," IEEE Sens. J. 7, 1483-1489 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. H. P. Zappe, M. Hess, M. Moser, R. Hövel, K. Gulden, H.-P. Gauggel, and F. Monti di Sopra, "Narrow-linewidth vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for oxygen detection," Appl. Opt. 39, 2475-2479 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Vogel and V. Ebert, "Near shot noise detection of oxygen in the A-band with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. B 72, 127-35 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. G. D. Cole, E. Behymer, L. L. Goddard, and T. C. Bond, "Fabrication of suspended dielectric mirror structures via xenon difluoride etching of an amorphous germanium sacrificial layer," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 593-597 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. G. D. Cole, E. S. Björlin, Q. Chen, C.-Y. Chan, S. Wu, C. S. Wang, N. C. MacDonald, and J. E. Bowers, "MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity SOAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 390-407 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Maute, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, B. Kögel, H. Halbritter, and P. Meissner, "Long-wavelength tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and the influence of coupled cavities," Opt. Express 13, 8008-8014 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8008. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Maute, B. Kögel, G. Bohm, P. Meissner, and M.-C. Amann, "MEMS-tunable 1.55-µm VCSEL with extended tuning range incorporating a buried tunnel junction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 688-690 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. F. Rinaldi, J. M. Ostermann, A. Kroner, and R. Michalzik, "High-performance AlGaAs-based VCSELs emitting in the 760 nm wavelength range," Opt. Commun. 270, 310-313 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. G. D. Cole, J. E. Bowers, K. L. Turner, and N. C. MacDonald, "Dynamic characterization of MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity SOAs," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications (MOEMS 2005), Oulu, Finland, 1-4 August 2005, paper F4. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Syrbu, V. Iakovlev, G. Suruceanu, A. Caliman, A. Rudra, A. Mircea, A. Mereuta, S. Tadeoni, C.-A. Berseth, M. Achtenhagen, J. Boucart, and E. Kapon, "1.55-µm optically pumped wafer-fused tunable VCSELs with 32-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1991-1993 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. F. Riemenschneider, M. Maute, H. Halbritter, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, and P. Meissner, "Continuously tunable long-wavelength MEMS-VCSEL with over 40-nm tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2212-2214 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. N. Kanbara, S.-i. Tezuka, and T. Watanabe, "MEMS tunable VCSEL with concave mirror using the selective polishing method," in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Their Applications (MOEMS 2006), Big Sky, MT, 21-24 August 2006, paper MA3. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Kitano, S. Izumi, H. Minami, T. Ishikawa, K. Sato, T. Sonoda, and M. Otsubo, "Selective wet etching for highly uniform GaAs/Al0.15Ga0.85As heterostructure field effect transistors," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 167-170 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. G. D. Cole, E. S. Björlin, C. S. Wang, N. C. MacDonald, and J. E. Bowers, "Widely tunable bottom-emitting vertical-cavity SOAs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2526-2528 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. P. B. Chu, J. T. Chen, R. Yeh, G. Lin, J. C. P. Huang, B. A. Warneke, and S. J. Pister, "Controlled pulse-etching with xenon difluoride," 9th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, Digest of Technical papers Transducers ???97, Chicago, IL, USA, paper 2D3.01, pp. 665-668.
  23. G. D. Cole and E. Behymer, "Rapid sacrificial germanium etching using xenon difluoride," in Technical Digest of Hilton Head 2008: Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, and Microsystems Workshop, 1-5 June 2008, Hilton Head Island, SC, pp. 388-389.
  24. M. C. Larson, A. R. Massengale, and J. S. Harris, "Continuously tunable micromachined vertical cavity surface emitting laser with 18 nm wavelength range," Electron. Lett. 32, 330-332 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Matsui, D. Vakhshoori, P. Wang, P. Chen, C.-C. Lu, M. Jiang, K. Knopp, S. Burroughs, and P. Tayebati, "Complete polarization mode control of long-wavelength tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers over 65-nm tuning, up to 14-mW output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1037-1048 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. K. L. Turner, P. G. Hartwell, and N. C. Macdonald, "Multi-dimensional MEMS motion characterization using laser vibrometry," 10th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, Digest of Technical papers Transducers '99, Sendai, Japan, pp. 1144-1147.
  27. P. Tayebati, P. D. Wang, D. Vakhshoori, C. C. Lu, M. Azimi, and R. N. Sacks, "Half-symmetric cavity tunable microelectromechanical VCSEL with single spatial mode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1679-1681 (1998). [CrossRef]
  28. M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A nanoelectromechanical tunable laser," Nat. Photonics 2, 180-184 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited