OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 21 — Oct. 13, 2008
  • pp: 16509–16515

Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution

Jungwon Kim, Matthew J. Park, Michael H. Perrott, and Franz X. Kärtner  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 21, pp. 16509-16515 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (400 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Conversion of analog signals into digital signals is one of the most important functionalities in modern signal processing systems. As the signal frequency increases beyond 10 GHz, the timing jitter from electronic clocks, currently limited at ~100 fs, compromises the achievable resolution of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Owing to their ultralow timing jitter, the use of optical pulse trains from passively mode-locked lasers has been considered to be a promising way for sampling electronic signals. In this paper, based on sub-10 fs jitter optical sampling pulse trains, we demonstrate a photonic subsampling ADC that downconverts and digitizes a narrowband microwave signal at 40 GHz carrier frequency with higher than 7 effective-number-of-bit (ENOB) resolution.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(350.4010) Other areas of optics : Microwaves
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics
(320.7085) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast information processing

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: September 2, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 26, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 26, 2008
Published: October 1, 2008

Jungwon Kim, Matthew J. Park, Michael H. Perrott, and Franz X. Kärtner, "Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution," Opt. Express 16, 16509-16515 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital conversion in the early 21st century," presented at the International Microwave Symposium, Honolulu, Hawaii, 3-8 June 2007.
  3. G. C. Valley, "Photonic analog-to-digital converters," Opt. Express 15, 1955-1982 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-1955. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. F. Taylor, M. J. Taylor, and P. W. Bauer, "Electro-optic analog-to-digital conversion using channel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 559-561 (1978). [CrossRef]
  5. U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Han and B. Jalali, "Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3085-3103 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Chou, O. Boyraz, D. Solli, and B. Jalali, "Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O�??Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Y. Nathawad, R. Urata, B. Wooley, and D. A. B. Miller, "A 40-GHz-bandwidth, 4-bit, time-interleaved A/D converter using photoconductive sampling," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2021-2030 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, "Noise of mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983-996 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Paschotta, "Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): Timing jitter and other fluctuations," Appl. Phys. B 79, 163-173 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Schlager, B. E. Callicoatt, R. P. Mirin, N. A. Sanford, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, "Passively mode-locked glass waveguide laser with 14-fs timing jitter," Opt. Lett. 28, 2411-2413 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. E. Malowicki, M. L. Fanto, M. J. Hayduk, and P. J. Delfyett, "Harmonically mode-locked glass waveguide laser with 21-fs timing jitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 40-42 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Kim, J. Chen, J. Cox, and F. X. Kärtner, "Attosecond-resolution timing jitter characterization of free-running mode-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 3519-3521 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 2383-2391 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, G. W. Titi, and J. C. Twichell, "Optical down-sampling of wide-band microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3116-3124 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. H. Pekau and J. W. Haslett, "A 2.4 GHz CMOS Sub-Sampling Mixer With Integrated Filtering," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2159-2166 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. S. R. Norsworthy, R. Schreier, and G. C. Temes eds., Delta-Sigma Data Converters: Theory, Design, and Simulation (Wiley-IEEE Press, New York, 1996). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Park and M. H. Perrott, "Behavioral Simulation of an Optical-Electrical Sub-Sampling Down Conversion Receiver and CT Delta-Sigma ADC" (2008), http://www.cppsim.com/.
  21. M. Shinagawa, Y. Akazawa, and T. Wakimoto, "Jitter Analysis of High-Speed Sampling Systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 25, 220-224 (1990). [CrossRef]
  22. Agilent Technologies Inc., Agilent E8267D PSG Vector Signal Generator Data Sheet 5989-0697EN (2007).
  23. J. Chen, J. W. Sickler, P. Fendel, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication," Opt. Lett. 33, 959-961 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Mitteregger, C. Ebner, S. Mechnig, T. Blon, C. Holuigue, and E. Romani, "A 20-mW 640-MHz CMOS Continuous-Time Σ�? ADC With 20-MHz Signal Bandwidth, 80-dB Dynamic Range and 12-bit ENOB," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2641-2649 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, "Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006). [CrossRef]
  28. B. R. Koch, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, and J. E. Bowers, "Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers," Opt. Express 15, 11225-11233 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-18-11225. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. H. Byun, D. Pudo, S. Frolov, A. Hanjani, J. Shmulovich, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, "Integrated, low-jitter, 400 MHz femtosecond waveguide laser," will be presented at the IEEE LEOS 2008 Annual Meeting, Newport Beach, CA, 9-13 November 2008.
  30. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-430. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 660-668 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15, 17106-17113 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-17106. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G.-R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing," Opt. Express 16, 11027-11031 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-15-11027. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. L. Colace, M. Balbi, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Ge on Si p-i-n photodiodes operating at 10 Gbit/s," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101111 (2006). [CrossRef]
  35. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 152-154 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited