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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 22 — Oct. 27, 2008
  • pp: 17982–18003

An analysis of heterodyne signals in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy

Chin-Ho Chuang and Yu-Lung Lo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 22, pp. 17982-18003 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.017982


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Abstract

This study constructs interference-based model of the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (A-SNOM) heterodyne detection signal which takes account of both the tip enhancement phenomena and the tip reflective background electric field. The analytical model not only provides a meaningful explanation of the image artifacts and errors, but also suggests methods for reducing these effects. It is shown that the detection signal obtained in the heterodyne A-SNOM method has a significantly higher signal-to-background (S/B) ratio than in the homodyne method. It is also shown that the S/B ratio increases as the wavelength of the illuminating light source is increased or the incident angle is reduced. Finally, an inspection reveals two fundamental phenomena which may potentially be exploited to obtain further significant improvements, namely (1) the modulation depth parameter has certain specific values greater than 1; and (2) the AFM tip apparatus using a ramp function.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
(180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy

ToC Category:
Microscopy

History
Original Manuscript: September 9, 2008
Revised Manuscript: October 16, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: October 19, 2008
Published: October 21, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 12 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Chin Ho Chuang and Yu-Lung Lo, "An analysis of heterodyne signals in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Express 16, 17982-18003 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17982


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