OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 22 — Oct. 27, 2008
  • pp: 18131–18144

Multi-gap individual and coupled split-ring resonator structures

R. S. Penciu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, Th. Koschny, E. Ozbay, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 22, pp. 18131-18144 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (705 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a systematic numerical study, validated by accompanied experimental data, of individual and coupled split ring resonators (SRRs) of a single rectangular ring with one, two and four gaps. We discuss the behavior of the magnetic resonance frequency, the magnetic field and the currents in the SRRs, as one goes from a single SRR to strongly interacting SRR pairs in the SRR plane. We show that coupling of the SRRs along the E direction results to shift of the magnetic resonance frequency to lower or higher values, depending on the capacitive or inductive nature of the coupling. Strong SRR coupling along propagation direction usually results to splitting of the single SRR resonance into two distinct resonances, associated with peculiar field and current distributions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(350.7420) Other areas of optics : Waves
(350.3618) Other areas of optics : Left-handed materials

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 22, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 18, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 20, 2008
Published: October 22, 2008

R. S. Penciu, K. Aydin, M. Kafesaki, Th. Koschny, E. Ozbay, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Multi-gap individual and coupled split-ring resonator structures," Opt. Express 16, 18131-18144 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968) [CrossRef]
  2. C. M.  Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative index materials: New frontiers in optics," Adv. Mater. 18, 1941-1952 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive Index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. "Focus Issue: Negative Refraction and Metamaterials," Opt. Express 11, 639−755 (2003). [PubMed]
  5. R. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of left-handed behavior of composite metamaterials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 12-16 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. T. F. Gundogdu, M. Gokkavas, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Simulations and micro-fabrication of optically switchable split ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 106-112 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Danithe, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Omni-reflectance and enhanced resonant tunneling from multilayers containing left-handed materials," Photon. Nanostruct. 4, 123-131 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 149-155 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. A. J. Holden, "Towards some real applications for negative materials," Photon. Nanostruct. 3, 96-99 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Guenneaua, S. A. Ramakrishnab, S. Enocha, S. Chakrabartib, G. Tayeba, and B. Gralaka, "Cloaking and imaging effects in plasmonic checkerboards of negative ε and μ and dielectric photonic crystal checkerboards," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 63-72 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Alu, N. Engheta, A. Erentok, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "Single-negative, double-negative and low index metamaterials and their electromagnetic applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 49, 23-36 (2007).
  13. J. B.  Pendry, A.  Holden, D.  Robbins, and W.  Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.  47, 2075-2084 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "A Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Marques, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440-(1-6) (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric Coupling to the Magnetic Resonance of Split-ring Resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2943-2945 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Garcia-Garcia, F. Martin, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelinek, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033103-1-9 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective Medium Theory of Left-handed Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-4 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Kafesaki, Th. Koschny, J. Zhou, N. Katsarakis, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, ``Electromagnetic behavior of left-handed materials,' Physica B 394, 148-154 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. .K. Aydin, K. Guven, Lei Zhang, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental Observation of True Left-Handed Transmission Peaks in Metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. Bilotti, A. Toscano, and L. Vegni, "Design of Spiral and Multiple Split-Ring Resonators for the Realization of Miniaturized Metamaterial Samples," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55, 2258-2267 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. R. Marqués, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, "Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside-coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design—Theory and experiment," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2572-2581 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. K. Aydin, I. Bulu, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Investigation of magnetic resonances for different split-ring resonator parameters and designs," New J. Phys. 7, 168-1-15 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, "Microstructured Magnetic Materials for RF Flux Guides in Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Science 291, 849 - 851 (2001) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index materials," Nature Photon. 1, 41-48 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative index metamaterials at optical wavelengths," Science 315, 47-49 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Linden et al., "Photonic metamaterials: Magnetism at optical frequencies," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1097-1105 (2006). [CrossRef]
  28. J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902-1-4 (2005). [CrossRef]
  29. Th. Koschny, L. Zhang, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Isotropic 3d left-handed and related metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 71, 121103(R)-1-4 (2005).
  30. J. D. Baena, L. Jelinek, R. Marqués, and J. Zehentner, "Electrically small isotropic three-dimensional magnetic resonators for metamaterial design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 134108-134110 (2006). [CrossRef]
  31. P. Gay-Balmaz and O.J.F. Martin, "Electromagnetic Resonances in Individual and Coupled Split-ring Resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 2929-2936 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Garcia-Garcia et al., "Miniaturized microstrip and CPW filters using coupled metamaterials resonators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 2628-2635 (2006). [CrossRef]
  33. E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Strong diamagnetic response of in split-ring-resonator metamaterials: Numerical study and two-loop model," Phys. Rev. B 77, 092401-1-4 (2008). [CrossRef]
  34. S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglou, "Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107-1110 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussensveig, "Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency," Am. J. Phys. 70, 37-41 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited