OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 22 — Oct. 27, 2008
  • pp: 18379–18389

Two-photon stimulated Raman excitation of thermal laser-induced gratings in molecular gases using broadband radiation of a single laser

Dimitrii N. Kozlov, Markus C. Weikl, Johannes Kiefer, Thomas Seeger, and Alfred Leipertz  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 22, pp. 18379-18389 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (883 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



For the first time to our knowledge, thermal laser-induced gratings (LIGs), generated via two-photon stimulated Raman excitation of pure rotational (and low-lying vibrational) transitions in molecules employing broadband radiation of a single pump laser, are observed. The efficiency of LIGs excitation using a few ns pulse duration dye laser with the spectral width of about 400 cm-1, which covers the frequency range of the characteristic rotational transitions, is experimentally investigated in a number of molecular gases (N2, CO2, C3H8) at room temperature and pressures of 0.1–5 bar. The physical mechanisms of LIG formation are discussed and comparison of the shapes of the LIG signals obtained in different gases is presented in relation to the spectra of rotational and vibrational energies of the molecules under study, as well as to the selection rules for Raman transitions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(020.0020) Atomic and molecular physics : Atomic and molecular physics
(020.2070) Atomic and molecular physics : Effects of collisions
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.5650) Nonlinear optics : Raman effect
(190.2055) Nonlinear optics : Dynamic gratings

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: June 2, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 6, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 10, 2008
Published: October 24, 2008

Dimitrii N. Kozlov, Markus C. Weikl, Johannes Kiefer, Thomas Seeger, and Alfred Leipertz, "Two-photon stimulated Raman excitation of thermal laser-induced gratings in molecular gases using broadband radiation of a single laser," Opt. Express 16, 18379-18389 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1986).
  2. A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings. I. Theory, II. Experiments" Appl. Phys. B 81, 101-111, 113-129 (2005), and references therein. [CrossRef]
  3. R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure using laser-induced thermal gratings with a long probe pulse" Appl. Phys. B 78, 111-117 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Schlamp, T. Rosgen, D.N. Kozlov, C. Rakut, P. Kasal, and J. von Wolfersdorf, "Transient grating spectroscopy in a hot turbulent compressible free jet" J. Propul. Power 21, 1008-1018 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Simultaneous single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure along a one-dimensional line by use of laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy" Opt. Lett. 31, 1055-1057 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Seeger, J. Kiefer, M. C. Weikl, A. Leipertz, and D. N. Kozlov, "Time resolved measurement of the local equivalence ratio in a gaseous propane injection process using laser-induced gratings" Opt. Express 14, 12994-13000 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. C. Hart, G. C. Herring, and R. J. Balla, "Pressure measurement in supersonic air flow by differential absorptive laser-induced thermal acoustics" Opt. Lett. 32, 1689-1691 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Kiefer, D. N. Kozlov, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Local fuel concentration measurements for mixture formation diagnostics using diffraction by laser-induced gratings in comparison to spontaneous Raman scattering" J. Raman Spectrosc. 39711-721 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. D. N. Kozlov and P. P. Radi, "Detection of vibrational overtone excitation in methane by laser-induced grating spectroscopy" J. Raman Spectrosc. 39730-738 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, New York, 1992).
  11. Z. W. Sun, J. Kiefer, Z. S. Li, B. Li, and M. Aldèn, "Four wave mixing with non-resonant pump and resonant probe for OH detection in flames" Appl. Phys. B 92, 287-293 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. T. J. Butenhoff and E. A. Rohlfing, "Laser-induced gratings in free jets. I. Spectroscopy of predissociating NO2" J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5460-5468 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. E. B. Cummings, "Laser-induced thermal acoustics: simple accurate gas measurements" Opt. Lett. 19, 1361-1363 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. B. Cummings, H. G. Hornung, M. S. Brown, and P. A. DeBarber, "Measurement of gas-phase sound speed and thermal diffusivity over a broad pressure range using laser-induced thermal acoustics" Opt. Lett. 20, 1577-1579 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Fantoni, M. Giorgi, L. De Dominicis, and D. N. Kozlov, "Collisional relaxation and internal energy redistribution in NO2 investigated by means of laser induced thermal grating technique" Chem. Phys. Lett. 332, 375-380 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. Q4. E. Loubignac, B. Attal-Trétout, S. Le Boiteux, and D. Kozlov, "Two-color non-linear spectroscopy: application to NO2" C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Serie IV, 1013-1027 (2001).
  17. E. F. McCormack, S. T. Pratt, P. M. Dehmer, and J. L. Dehmer, "Double-resonance laser-induced grating spectroscopy of nitric oxide" Chem. Phys. Lett. 211, 147-155 (1993). [CrossRef]
  18. Q5. P. H. Paul, R. L. Farrow, and P. M. Danehy, "Gas-phase thermal-grating contribution to four-wave mixing" JOSA B 12, 384-392 (1995). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Williams, L. A. Rahn, P. H. Paul, J. W. Forsman, and R. N. Zare, "Laser-induced thermal grating effects in flames" Opt. Lett. 19, 1681-1683 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Hemmerling, R. Bombach, and W. Hubschmid, "Laser-induced gratings in oxygen excited via the b1Σ+g(v'=0) state" Chem. Phys. Lett. 256, 71-76 (1996). [CrossRef]
  21. W. Hubschmid and B. Hemmerling, "Relaxation processes in singlet O2 analyzed by laser-induced gratings" Chem. Phys. 259, 109-120 (2000). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Hemmerling and D.N. Kozlov, "Collisional relaxation of singlet O2 (b 1Σ+g) in neat gas investigated by laser-induced grating technique" Chem. Phys. 291, 213-242 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. M. A. Buntine, D. W. Chandler, and C. C. Hayden, "Detection of vibrational-overtone excitation in water via laser-induced grating spectroscopy" J. Chem. Phys. 102, 2718-2726 (1995). [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. Booze, D. E. Govoni, and F. F. Crim, "Diffraction mechanisms in gas-phase laser induced grating spectroscopy of vibrational overtone transitions" J. Chem. Phys. 103, 10484-10491 (1995). [CrossRef]
  25. R. C. Hart, R. J. Balla, and G. C. Herring, "Observation of H2O in a flame by two-colour laser-induced-grating spectroscopy" Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 917-920 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings" Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Gutfleisch, D. I. Shin, T. Dreier, and P. M. Danehy, "Mid-infrared laser-induced grating experiments of C2H4 and NH3 from 0.1-2 MPa and 300-800 K" Appl. Phys. B 71, 673-680 (2000). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Dreizler, H. Latzel, T. Dreier, A. Koch, and J. Wolfrum, "Thermal contributions in infrared laser-induced grating experiments at high pressure" Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 100, 1678-1683 (1996).
  29. D. N. Kozlov, R. Bombach, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Laser-induced gratings in the gas phase excited by Raman-active transitions" Opt. Lett. 22, 46-48 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. N. Kozlov, R. Bombach, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Excitation of laser-induced thermal gratings in the gas phase via Raman-active transitions" Opt. Commun. 166, 245-254 (1999). [CrossRef]
  31. Q6. W. Hubschmid, B. Hemmerling, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Rayleigh and Brillouin modes in electrostrictive gratings" JOSA B 12, 1850-1854 (1995). [CrossRef]
  32. C. M. Roland and W. A. Steele, "Intensities in pure rotational CARS of air" J. Chem. Phys. 73, 5919-5923 (1980). [CrossRef]
  33. Q7. W. R. Fenner, H. A. Hyatt, J. M. Kellam, and S. P. S. Porto, "Raman cross-section of some simple gases" JOSA 63, 73-77 (1973). [CrossRef]
  34. F. Lepoutre, G. Louis, and H. Manceau, "Collisional relaxation in CO2 between 180 K and 400 K measured by the spectrophone method" Chem. Phys. Lett. 48, 509-514 (1977). [CrossRef]
  35. http://srdata.nist.gov/cccbdb/.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited