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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 26 — Dec. 22, 2008
  • pp: 21835–21842

Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting

Jong Kyu Kim and E. Fred Schubert  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 26, pp. 21835-21842 (2008)

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The field of photonics starts with the efficient generation of light. The generation of efficient yet highly controllable light can indeed be accomplished with light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which are, in principle, capable of generating white light with a 20 times greater efficiency than conventional light bulbs. Deployed on a global scale to replace conventional sources, such solid-state light sources will result in enormous benefits that, over a period of 10 years, include (1) gigantic energy savings of 1.9×1020 joule, (2) a very substantial reduction in global-warming CO2 emissions, (3) a strong reduction in the emission of pollutants such as acid-rain-causing SO2, mercury (Hg), and uranium (U), and (4) financial savings exceeding a trillion (1012) US$. These benefits can be accomplished by the “replacement paradigm” in which conventional light sources are replaced by more energy efficient, more durable, and non-toxic light sources. However, it will be shown that solid-state light sources can go beyond the replacement paradigm, by providing new capabilities including the control of spectrum, color temperature, polarization, temporal modulation, and spatial emission pattern. We will show that such future, “smart” light sources, can harness the huge potential of LEDs by offering multi-dimensional controllability that will enhance the functionality and performance of light sources in a wide range of applications. These applications include optical microscopy, imaging, display technologies, communications, networking, and transportation systems.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics

Original Manuscript: August 11, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 15, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 16, 2008
Published: December 17, 2008

Virtual Issues
Optics for Energy (2008) Optics Express

Jong Kyu Kim and E. Fred Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Express 16, 21835-21842 (2008)

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  1. S. Chhajed, Y. Xi, Y.-L. Li, T. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert "Influence of junction temperature on luminous efficacy and color rendering properties of a trichromatic LED-based white light source," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 054506 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park "Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. Fred Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park "Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041102 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light-emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. - Express Lett.  44, L 649 (2005).
  5. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, and J.-Q. Xi "Solid-state lighting - A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3098 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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