OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 4 — Feb. 18, 2008
  • pp: 2351–2362

Two-ion Coulomb crystals of Ca+ in a Penning trap.

D. R. Crick, H. Ohadi, I. Bhatti, R. C. Thompson, and D. M. Segal  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp. 2351-2362 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (6471 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Results demonstrating laser cooling and observation of individual calcium ions in a Penning trap are presented. We show that we are able to trap, cool, image and manipulate the shape of very small ensembles of ions sufficiently well to produce two-ion ‘Coulomb crystals’ aligned along the magnetic field of a Penning trap. Images are presented which show the individual ions to be resolved in a two-ion crystal. A distinct change in the configuration of such a crystal is observed as the experimental parameters are changed. These structures could eventually be used as building blocks in a Penning trap based quantum computer.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing
(020.3320) Atomic and molecular physics : Laser cooling

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: October 24, 2007
Revised Manuscript: January 8, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: January 10, 2008
Published: February 5, 2008

D. R. Crick, H. Ohadi, I. Bhatti, R. C. Thompson, and D. M. Segal, "Two-ion Coulomb crystals of Ca+in a Penning trap," Opt. Express 16, 2351-2362 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, "Quantum Computations with Cold Trapped Ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. D. Leibfried, B. DeMarco, V. Meyer, D. Lucas, M. Barrett, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, B. Jelenkovic, C. Langer, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental demonstration of a robust, high-fidelity geometric two ionqubit phase gate," Nature 422, 412 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. F. Schmidt-Kaler, H. Haffner, M. Riebe, S. Gulde, G. P. T. Lancaster, T. Deuschle, C. Becher, C. F. Roos, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, "Realization of the Cirac-Zoller controlled-NOT quantum gate." Nature 422, 408-411 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Gulde, M. Riebe, G. P. T. Lancaster, C. Becher, J. Eschner, H. Haffner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, I. L. Chuang, and R. Blatt, "Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 421, 48-50 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K.-A. Brickman, P. C. Haljan, P. J. Lee, M. Acton, L. Deslauriers, and C. Monroe "Implementation of Grover’s quantum search algorithm in a scalable system," Phys. Rev. A. 72, 050306R (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Riebe, H. Haffner, C. F. Roos, W. Hansel, J.  Benhelm, G. P. T.  Lancaster, T. W. Kober, C. Becher, F.  Schmidt-Kaler, D. F. V. James and R. Blatt, "Deterministic quantum teleportation with atoms," Nature 429, 734 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Barrett, J. Chiaverini, T. Schaetz, J. Britton, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, E. Knill, C. Langer, D. Leibfried, R. Ozeri and D. J. Wineland, "Deterministic quantum teleportation of atomic qubits," Nature 429, 737 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Chiaverini, J. Britton, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, M. D. Barrett, R. B. Blakestad, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Schaetz and D. J. Wineland, "Implementation of the Semiclassical Quantum Fourier Transform in a scalable system," Science 308, 997 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. R. Reichle, D. Leibfried, E. Knill, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, S. Seidelin and D. J. Wineland, "Experimental purification of two-atom entanglement," Nature 443, 838 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Leibfried, E. Knill, S. Seidelin, J. Britton, R. B. Blakestad, J. Chiaverini, D. B. Hume, W. M. Itano, J. D. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, R. Reichle, and D. J. Wineland, "Creation of a six-atom ‘Schrodinger cat’ state," Nature 438, 639-642 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Haffner, W. Hansel, C. F. Roos, J. Benhelm, D. Chekalkar, M. Chwalla, T. K rber, U. D. Rapol, M. Riebe, P. O. Schmidt, C. Becher, O. Guhne, W. Dur, and R. Blatt, "Scalable multiparticle entanglement of trapped ions," Nature 438, 643-646 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. J. Wineland, C. Monroe, W. M. Itano, D. Leibfried, B. E. King, and D. M. Meekhof, "Experimental issues in coherent quantum-state manipulation of trapped atomic ions," J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 259 (1998). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Kielpinski, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Architecture for a large-scale ion-trap quantum computer," Nature 417, 709-711 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J . Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A . Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M . Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Deslauriers, S. Olmschenk, D. Stick, W. K. Hensinger, J. Sterk, and C. Monroe, "Scaling and Suppression of Anomalous Heating in Ion Traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103007 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35-54 (1982). [CrossRef]
  17. H. F. Powell, S. R. de Echaniz, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Improvement of laser cooling of ions in a Penning trap by use of the axialization technique," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. 36, 961-970 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. R. J. Hendricks, E. S. Phillips, D. M. Segal, and R. C. Thompson, "Laser cooling in the Penning trap: an analytical model for cooling rates in the presence of an axializing field," arXiv:0709.3817v1 [quant-ph] 2007, Accepted for publication in J. Phys. B. (in press).
  19. M. Brownnutt, G. Wilpers, P. Gill, R. C. Thompson, and A. G. Sinclair, "Monolithic microfabricated ion trap chip design for scaleable quantum processors," New J. Phys. 8, 232 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. P. K. Ghosh, Ion Traps, (Oxford University Press 1995).
  21. M . König, G . Bollen, H.-J.  Kluge, T.  Otto and J.  Szerypo, "Quadrupole excitation of stored ion motion at the true cyclotron frequency," Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Proc. 142, 95-116 (1995). [CrossRef]
  22. J. R . Castrejon-Pita, H. Ohadi, D. R. Crick, D. F. A. Winters, D. M. Segal, and R. C.  Thompson, "Novel designs for Penning ion traps," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 1581-1594 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Barenco, C. H. Bennett, R. Cleve, D. P. DiVincenzo, N. Margolus, P. Shor, T. Sleator, J. A. Smolin, and H. Weinfurter, "Elementary gates for quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3457-3467 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Ciaramicoli, I. Marzoli, and P. Tombesi, "Scalable quantum processor with trapped electrons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 017901 (2003). [CrossRef]
  25. T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, D. H. E. Dubin, X. P. Huang, W. M. Itano, and R. H. Baughman, "Direct observations of structural phase transitions in planar crystallized ion plasmas," Science 282, 1290-1293 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Porras and J. I. Cirac, "Quantum manipulation of trapped ions in two dimensional Coulomb Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 250501 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. J. M. Taylor and T. Calarco, "Wigner crystals of ions as quantum hard drives," arXiv:0706.1951.
  28. M. E. M. Storkey. "Studies of laser-cooled trapped ions," PhD thesis, Imperial College London, (2001).
  29. J. L. K. Koo. "Laser cooling and trapping of Ca+ ions in a Penning trap," PhD thesis, Imperial College London, (2003).
  30. G. P. T. Lancaster, H. Haffner, M. A. Wilson, C. Becher, J. Eschner, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, "Doppler cooling a single Ca+ ion with a violet extended-cavity diode laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 805-808 (2003). [CrossRef]
  31. F. Diedrich, E. Peik, J. M. Chen, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Observation of a phase transition of stored laser-cooled ions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2931-2934 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. S. Fishman, G. De Chiara, T. Calarco and G. Morigi, "Structural phase transitions in low-dimensional ion crystals," arXiv:0710.1831.
  33. D. Reiss, K. Abich, W. Neuhauser, Ch. Wunderlich, and P. E. Toschek, "Raman cooling and heating of two trapped Ba+ ions," Phys. Rev. A 65, 053401 (2002). [CrossRef]
  34. D. G. Enzer, M. M. Schauer, J. J. Gomez, M. S. Gulley, M. H. Holzscheiter, P. G. Kwiat, S. K. Lamoreaux, C. G. Peterson, V. D. Sandberg, D. Tupa, A. G. White, R. J. Hughes and D. F. James, "Observation of power-law scaling for phase transitions in linear trapped ion crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2466 (2000). [CrossRef]
  35. D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micro motion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025 (1998). [CrossRef]
  36. R.C. Thompson and D.C. Wilson, "The motion of small numbers of ions in a Penning trap," Z Phys. D 42, 271-277 (1997). [CrossRef]
  37. F. Mintert and Ch. Wunderlich, "Ion-trap quantum logic using long-wavelength radiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 257904-1 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: GIF (116 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited