OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 4 — Feb. 18, 2008
  • pp: 2685–2693

Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel

Cynthia L. Darling and Daniel Fried  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 4, pp. 2685-2693 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (201 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a λ=9.3-µm CO2 laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal & mechanical damage.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
(170.1850) Medical optics and biotechnology : Dentistry

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: December 21, 2007
Revised Manuscript: February 6, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: February 8, 2008
Published: February 12, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Cynthia L. Darling and Daniel Fried, "Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel," Opt. Express 16, 2685-2693 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. M. Bühler, P. Ngaotheppitak, and D. Fried, "Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm," Opt. Express 13, 573-582 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. S. Jones, G. D. Huynh, G. C. Jones, and D. Fried, "Near-IR transillumination at 1310-nm for the imaging of early dental caries," Opt. Express 11, 2259-2265 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Fried, J. D. B. Featherstone, C. L. Darling, R. S. Jones, P. Ngaotheppitak, and C. M. Buehler, Early Caries Imaging and Monitoring with Near-IR Light, Dental Clinics of North America, (W. B Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2005) Vol. 49 .
  4. C. M. Pine, Fiber-Optic Transillumination (FOTI) in Caries Diagnosis, "Early Detection of Dental Caries" Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Indiana Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana University, 51-66 (1996).
  5. A. Schneiderman, M. Elbaum, T. Schultz, S. Keem, M. Greenebaum, and J. Driller, "Assessment of dental caries with Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination (DIFOTI) in vitro Study," Caries Res. 31, 103-110 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. V. Reddy and S. Sugandhan, "A comparison of bitewing radiography and fibreoptic illumination as adjuncts to the clinical identification of approximal caries in primary and permanent molars," Indian J. Dent. Res. 5, 59-64 (1994). [PubMed]
  7. S. K. Choksi, J. M. Brady, D. H. Dang, and M. S. Rao, "Detecting approximal dental caries with transillumination: a clinical evaluation," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 125, 1098-102 (1994). [PubMed]
  8. E. H. Verdonschot, E. M. Bronkhorst, and A. Wenzel, "Approximal caries diagnosis using fiber-optic transillumination: a mathematical adjustment to improve validity," Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol. 19, 329-32 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Jones and D. Fried, "Attenuation of 1310-nm and 1550-nm laser light through dental enamel," J. Dent. Res. 80, 737 (2001).
  10. R. H. Stern and R. F. Sognnaes, "Laser beam effect on hard dental tissues," J. Dent. Res. 43, 873 (1964).
  11. H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, J. D. B. Featherstone, S. R. Visuri, D. Fried, and J. L. Waldvogel, "Lasers in Dentistry," Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 103-133 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. J. Miserendino and R. M. Pick, Lasers in Dentistry (Quintessence, Chicago, 1995).
  13. D. Fried, N. Ashouri, T. M. Breunig, and R. K. Shori, "Mechanism of water augmentation during IR laser irradiation of dental enamel," Lasers Surg. Med. 31, 186-193 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Pearce and S. Thomsen, in Optical-Thermal Response of Laser Irradiated Tissue, edited by A. J. Welch and M. J. C. van Gemert (Plenum, NY, 1995), p. 526-528.
  15. A. A. Dela Rosa, A. V. Sarma, C. Q. J. Le, R. S. and D. Fried, "Peripheral thermal and mechanical damage to dentin with microsecond and sub-microsecond 9.6 µm, 2.79 µm, and 0.355 µm laser pulses," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 214-228 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. D. J. Maitland and J. T. Walsh, "Thermally induced changes in tissue birefringence, laser-tissue interaction VI," SPIE 2391, 158-164, 1995. [CrossRef]
  17. A. Aminzadeh, S. Shahabi, and L. J. Walsh, Raman spectroscopic studies of CO2 laser-irradiated human dental enamel., Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 55A, 1303-1308 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. K. Fan, P Bell, and D. Fried, "Rapid and conservative ablation and modification of enamel, dentin, and alveolar bone using a high repetition rate transverse excited atmospheric pressure CO2 laser operating at ?= 9.3 ?m," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064008 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Fried, C. M. Buhler, P. Ngaotheppitak, and C. L. Darling, "Near-IR imaging of interproximal lesions from occlusal surfaces and the influence of stains and plaque," SPIE 6137, 61370N (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. J. T. Walsh, T. J. Flotte, R. R. Anderson, and T. F. Deutsch, "Pulsed CO2 laser tissue ablation: Effect of tissue type and pulse duration on thermal damage," Lasers Surg. Med. 8, 108-118 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. J. Burkes, J. Hoke, E. Gomes, and M. Wolbarsht, "Wet versus dry enamel ablation by Er:YAG laser, " J. Prosthet. Dent. 67, 847-51 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. A. Vickers, S. L. Jacques, J. Schwartz, M. Motamedi, S. Rastegar, and J. W. Martin, "Ablation of hard dental tissues with the Er:YAG laser," Laser -Tissue Interaction III, SPIE 1646, 46-55 (1992).
  23. H. A. Wigdor, J. T. Walsh, and S. R. Visuri, "Effect of water on dental material ablation of the Er:YAG laser," Lasers in Surgery: Advanced Characterization, Therapeutics, and Systems IV, SPIE 2128, 267-272 (1994).
  24. G. H. Dibdin, "The water in human dental enamel and its diffusional exchange measured by clearance of tritiated water from enamel slabs of varying thickness," Caries Res. 27, 81-86 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. W. Holcomb and R. A. Young, "Thermal decomposition of human tooth enamel," Calcif. Tissue Int. 31, 189-201 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MOV (1457 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (9714 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (5367 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (3654 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (2717 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (2349 KB)     
» Media 7: MOV (1429 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited