OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 12 — Jun. 8, 2009
  • pp: 9891–9903

Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 12, pp. 9891-9903 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (232 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The physics of laser-mater interactions beyond the perturbative limit configures the field of extreme non-linear optics. Although most experiments have been done in the near infrared (λ≤1µm), the situation is changing nowadays with the development of sources at longer wavelengths (<5µm), opening new perspectives in the synthesis of shorter XUV attosecond pulses and higher frequencies. The theory of intense-field interactions is based either on the exact numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation or in the development of models, mostly based on the strong-field approximation. Recent studies in the short-wave infrared show a divergence between the predictions of these models and the exact results. In this paper we will show that this discrepancy reveals the incompleteness of our present understanding of high-order harmonic generation. We discuss the physical grounds, provide a theoretical framework beyond the standard approximations and develop a compact approach that accounts for the correct scaling of the harmonic yield.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(020.4180) Atomic and molecular physics : Multiphoton processes
(190.4160) Nonlinear optics : Multiharmonic generation
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(260.5210) Physical optics : Photoionization
(270.6620) Quantum optics : Strong-field processes
(020.2649) Atomic and molecular physics : Strong field laser physics

ToC Category:
Atomic and Molecular Physics

Original Manuscript: February 17, 2009
Revised Manuscript: April 2, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: April 2, 2009
Published: May 28, 2009

J. A. Pérez-Hernández, L. Roso, and L. Plaja, "Harmonic generation beyond the Strong-Field Approximation: the physics behind the short-wave-infrared scaling laws," Opt. Express 17, 9891-9903 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 1945-1956 (1964) [ Sov. Phys. JETP 20 1307-1314 (1965)].
  2. F. H. M. Faisal, "Multiple Absorption of Laser Photons by Atoms," J. Phys. B 6, L89-L92 (1973). [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Reiss, "Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system," Phys. Rev. A 22,1786-1813 (1980). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huiller, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Lewenstein, P. Sali`eres, and A. L’Huiller, "Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 52, 4747-4754 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Becker, A. Lohr, M. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, "A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 56, 645-656 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Za¨ır, M. Holler, A. Guadalini, F. Shapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cornier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Sali`eres, "Quantum Path Interferences in High-Order Harmonic Generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143902-1-4 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. Di Mauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett.  98,013901-1-4 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Person, and J. Burgd¨orfer,"Quantum path interference in the wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. Lett.  99, 253903-1-4 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, and A. F. Starace, "Wavelength scaling of high-harmonic yield: threshold phenomena and bound state symmetry dependence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 173001-1-4 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villores, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated Single-Cycle Attosecond Pulses," Science 314, 443-446 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Janjusevic and Y. Hahn, "Testing of laser-dressed atomic states," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 592-597 (1990). [CrossRef]
  14. P. Krsti’c and M. H. Mittleman, "S-matrix theory of multiphoton ionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 587-591 (1990). [CrossRef]
  15. O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, "Coulomb and polarization effects in sub-cycle dynamics of strong field ionization," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S307-321 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. W. Becker, J. Chen, S. G. Chen, and D. B. Milosevic, "Dressed-state strong-field approximation for laser induced molecular ionization," Phys. Rev. A 76, 033403-1-7 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. Di Mauro, "Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit," Nature Phys. 4, 386-389 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. L. Plaja and J. A. P’erez-Hern’andez, "A quantitative S-Matrix approach to high-order harmonic generation from multiphoton to tunneling regimes," Opt. Express 15, 3629-3634 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. A. P´erez-Hern´andez and L. Plaja, "Quantum description of the high-order harmonic generation in multiphoton and tunneling regimes," Phys. Rev. A 76, 023829-1-7 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. V. P. Krainov, "Ionization rates and energy and angular distributions at the barrier-suppression ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 425431 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited