OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 13 — Jun. 22, 2009
  • pp: 11130–11139

Average intensity and spreading of an elegant Hermite–Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere

Yangsheng Yuan, Yangjian Cai, Jun Qu, Halil T. Eyyuboğlu, and Yahya Baykal  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 13, pp. 11130-11139 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.011130


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (370 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The propagation of an elegant Hermite-Gaussian beam (EHGB) in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Analytical propagation formulae for the average intensity and effective beam size of an EHGB in turbulent atmosphere are derived based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral. The corresponding results of a standard Hermite-Gaussian beam (SHGB) in turbulent atmosphere are also derived for the convenience of comparison. The intensity and spreading properties of EHGBs and SHGBs in turbulent atmosphere are studied numerically and comparatively. It is found that the propagation properties of EHGBs and SHGBs are much different from their properties in free space, and the EHGB and SHGB with higher orders are less affected by the turbulence. What’s more, the SHGB spreads more rapidly than the EHGB in turbulent atmosphere under the same conditions. Our results will be useful in long-distance free-space optical communications.

© 2009 OSA

OCIS Codes
(010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
(010.3310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Laser beam transmission

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 12, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 5, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 11, 2009
Published: June 18, 2009

Citation
Yangsheng Yuan, Yangjian Cai, Jun Qu, Halil T. Eyyuboğlu, and Yahya Baykal, "Average intensity and spreading of an elegant Hermite–Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere," Opt. Express 17, 11130-11139 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-11130


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. E. Siegman, LASERS, University Science Books, Mill Valley, 1986.
  2. W. H. Carter, “Spot size and divergence for Hermite-Gaussian beams of any order,” Appl. Opt. 19(7), 1027–1029 (1980). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kojima, “Diffraction of Hermite-Gaussian beams from a sinusoidal conducting grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7(9), 1740–1744 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. O. Mata-Mendez and F. Chavez-Rivas, “Diffraction of Gaussian and Hermite-Gaussia beams by finite gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(3), 537–545 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. K. M. Luk and P. K. Yu, “Generation of Hermite-Gaussian beam modes by multipoles with complex source points,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2(11), 1818–1820 (1985). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Generation of Hermite-Gaussian modes in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(6), 1025–1031 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Laabs, “Propagation of Hermite-Gaussian-beams beyond the paraxial approximation,” Opt. Commun. 147(1-3), 1–4 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Cai and Q. Lin, “The elliptical Hermite-Gaussian beam and its propagation through paraxial systems,” Opt. Commun. 207, 139–147 (2002).
  9. Y. Cai and Q. Lin, “Decentered elliptical Hermite–Gaussian beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(6), 1111–1119 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Qiu, H. Guo, and Z. Chen, “Paraxial propagation of partially coherent Hermite-Gauss beams,” Opt. Commun. 245(1-6), 21–26 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Cai and C. Chen, “Paraxial propagation of a partially coherent Hermite-Gaussian beam through aligned and misaligned ABCD optical systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(8), 2394–2401 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. A. E. Siegman, “Hermite-Gaussian functions of complex argument as optical-beam eigenfunctions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63(9), 1093–1094 (1973). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Y. Shin and L. B. Felsen, “Gaussian beam modes by multipoles with complex source points,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67(5), 699–700 (1977). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Zauderer, “Complex argument Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3(4), 465–469 (1986). [CrossRef]
  15. H. Laabs, C. Gao, and H. Weber, “Twisting of three-dimensional Hermite-Gaussian beams,” J. Mod. Opt. 46, 709–719 (1999).
  16. S. Saghafi and C. J. R. Sheppard, “The beam propagation factor for higher order Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 153(4-6), 207–210 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Saghafi, C. J. R. Sheppard, and J. A. Piper, “Characterising elegant and standard Hermite-Gaussian beam modes,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 173–179 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. B. Lu and H. Ma, “A comparative study of elegant and standard Hermite-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 174(1-4), 99–104 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. Z. I. Feizulin and Y. A. Kravtsov, “Broadening of a laser beam in a turbulent medium,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 33–35 (1967). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Y. Young, Y. V. Gilchrest, and B. R. Macon, “Turbulence-induced beam spreading of higher-order mode optical waves,” Opt. Eng. 41(5), 1097–1103 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. S. C. H. Wang and M. A. Plonus, “Optical beam propagation for a partially coherent source in the turbulent atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69(9), 1297–1304 (1979). [CrossRef]
  22. X. Chu, “Propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an optical system in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17613–17618 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. O. Korotkova, M. Salem, A. Dogariu, and E. Wolf, “Changes in the polarization ellipse of random electromagnetic beams propagating through the turbulent atmosphere,” Waves Random Complex Media 15(3), 353–364 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Cai, O. Korotkova, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15834–15846 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Baykal, “Correlation and structure functions of Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(7), 1290–1299 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Hermite-cosine-Gaussian laser beam and its propagation characteristics in turbulent atmosphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(8), 1527–1535 (2005). [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Cai and S. He, “Propagation of a partially coherent twisted anisotropic Gaussian Schell-model beam in a turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041117 (2006). [CrossRef]
  28. Y. Cai, Y. Chen, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Scintillation index of elliptical Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2405–2407 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Alavinejad, B. Ghafary, and F. D. Kashani, “Analysis of the propagation of flat-topped beam with various beam orders through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 46(1), 1–5 (2008). [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Cai and S. He, “Propagation of various dark hollow beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 14(4), 1353–1367 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. J. Noriega-Manez and J. C. Gutierrez-Vega, “Rytov theory for Helmholtz-Gauss beams in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16328–16341 (2007). [CrossRef]
  32. Z. Chen and J. Pu, “Propagation characteristics of aberrant stochastic electromagnetic beams in a turbulent atmosphere,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(12), 1123–1130 (2007). [CrossRef]
  33. K. Zhu, G. Zhou, X. Li, X. Zheng, and H. Tang, “Propagation of Bessel-Gaussian beams with optical vortices in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21315–21320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Cai, Y. Chen, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Scintillation index of elliptical Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2405–2407 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. X. Ji, X. Chen, and B. Lu, “Spreading and directionality of partially coherent Hermite-Gaussian beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(1), 21–28 (2008). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Belmonte, A. Comerón, J. A. Rubio, J. Bará, and E. Fernández, “Atmospheric-turbulence-induced power-fade statistics for a multiaperture optical receiver,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8632–8638 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. I. I. Kim, H. Hakakha, P. Adhikari, E. J. Korevaar, and A. K. Majumdar, “Scintillation reduction using multiple apertures,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies IX, G. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE 2990, 102–113 (1997).
  38. Y. E. Yenice, and B. G. Evans, “Adaptive beam-size control for ground-to-space laser communications,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies X, G. Mecherle, ed., Proc. SPIE 3266, 221–230 (1998).
  39. A. Erdelyi, W. Magnus, and F. Oberhettinger, Tables of Integral Transforms (McGraw-Hill, 1954).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited