OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 13 — Jun. 22, 2009
  • pp: 11140–11154

Monitoring technique for waveform distortion of 160 Gb/s signal by prescaled-clock tone detection using EA modulator

Masatoshi KAGAWA, Hiromi TSUJI, Akihiro FUJII, Yoshihiro KANDA, and Hitoshi MURAI  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 13, pp. 11140-11154 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (922 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In order to monitor quality of ultra high bit-rate optical signals in a future optical network, such as 160 Gb/s, a simple monitoring technique is required. Therefore, a novel waveform monitoring technique by prescaled-clock tone detection was proposed in a previous report. In this paper, detailed principle of the proposed technique was explained. The monitoring technique is based on an asynchronous beat signal generation using an elecro-absorption modulator (EAM) and is able to separately observe waveform distortion caused by accumulated chromatic dispersion (CD), polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) degradation. The verification of concepts was performed by experiments, in which 1 GHz pre-scaled signals were employed to monitor distortion of OTDM 160 Gb/s carrier suppressed return-to-zero (CS-RZ) signals. Furthermore, applicability to Q factor estimation was verified by an experiment. In addition, an observation of 160 Gb/s signal by the proposed monitor was demonstrated over 120 minutes using an installed fiber in JGN-II testbed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: February 23, 2009
Revised Manuscript: May 12, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 10, 2009
Published: June 19, 2009

Masatoshi Kagawa, Hiromi Tsuji, Akihiro Fujii, Yoshihiro Kanda, and Hitoshi Murai, "Monitoring technique for waveform distortion of 160 Gb/s signal by prescaled-clock tone detection using EA modulator," Opt. Express 17, 11140-11154 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Nakazawa, T. Yamamoto, and K. R. Tamura, "1.28 Tbit/s-70 km OTDM transmission using third- and fourth-order simultaneous dispersion compensation with a phase modulator," Electron. Lett. 36, 2027-2029 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, "Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 43, 178-179 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Murai, M. Kagawa, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "Single channel 160 Gbit/s carrier-suppressed RZ transmission over 640 km with EA modulator based OTDM module," Proc. 30th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.4 (2003).
  4. E. Lach, K. Schuh, M. Schmidt, B. Junginger, G. Charlet, P. Pecci, G. Veith, "7 × 170 Gbit/s (160 Gbit/s + FEC overhead) DWDM transmission with 0.53 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over long haul distance of standard SMF," in Proc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Th4.3.5 (2003).
  5. S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama, I. Shake, and K. Mori, "3 Tbit/s (160 Gbit/s × 19ch) OTDM-WDM transmission experiment," in Tech. Dig.Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 1999 (OFC’99) PD1 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Suzuki, X. Wang, T. Hasegawa, Y. Ogawa, S Arahira, K. Tajima, and S. Nakamura, "8 × 160 Gb/s (1.28 Tb/s) DWDM/OTDM unrepeatered transmission over 140 km standard fiber by semiconductor-based devices," in Prc. 29th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2003) Mo3.6.1 (2003)
  7. Y. Takushima, and K. Kikuchi, "In-service monitor for group-velocity dispersion of optical fibre transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 37, 743-745 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Bendelli, C. Cavazzoni, R. Girardi, and R. Lano, "Optical performance monitoring techniques," in Proc. 26th Euro. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC2000) 4, 113-116 (2000).
  9. S. Norimatsu, and M. Maruoka, "Accurate Q-factor estimation of optically amplified systems in the presence of waveform distortion," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 19-27 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. T. E. Dimmick, G. Rossi, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Optical monitoring technique using double sideband subcarriers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 900-902 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Kozicki, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals using delay-tap sampling method," Opt. Express 16, 3566-3576 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Shake, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, "Simple Q factor monitoring for BER estimation using opened eye diagrams captured by high-speed asynchronous electrooptical sampling," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 620-622 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Kozicki, T. Ohara, and H. Takara, "Optical Performance monitoring of phase-modulated signals using asynchronous amplitude histogram analysis," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1353-11361 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. S. D. Dods, and T.B. Andersion, "Optical performance monitoring technique using delay tap asynchronous waveform sampling," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06) OThP5 (2006).
  15. T. B. Anderson, S. D. Dods, E. Wong, and P. M. Farell, "Asynchronous measurement of chromatic dispersion from waveform distortion," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2006 (OFC’06), OWN4 (2006).
  16. K. T. Tsai, and W. I. Way, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring using an optical delay-and-add filter," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3737-3747 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. A. L. Campillo, "Chromatic dispersion-monitoring technique based on phase-sensitive detection," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1241-1243 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Pan, Q. Yu, Y. Xie, S. A. Havstad, A. E. Willner, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring and automated compensation for NRZ and RZ data using clock regeneration and fading without adding signaling," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2001 (OFC’01) 5-1WWWWWWWWW WH5-1 (2001).
  19. X. Liu, and Y. H. Kao, "A simple OSNR monitoring technique independent of PMD and chromatic dispersion based on a 1-bit delay interferometer," Proc. 32th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2006) Mo4.4.7 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, J. Y. Yang, P. Saghari, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, and R. Kashyap, "Independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion in OOK and DPSK transmission," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 3-5 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn. T. Her, D Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chroamtic dipersion for automatic dispersion compensation," Electron. Lett. 38, 1198-1199 (2002) [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kagawa, H. Murai, H. Tsuji, and K. Fujii, "Waveform Distortion Monitor for 160 Gbit/s Signal by Prescaled-clock Measurement using EA Modulator," in Tech. Dig.Optical Fiber Communications Conf. 2008 (OFC’08) OThW7 (2008).
  23. Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, "320 Gbit/s (8 x 40 Gbit/s) WDM transmission over 367-km zero-dispersion-flattened line with 120-km repeater spacing using carrier-suppressed return-to-zero pulse format," Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications 1999, PDP4 (1999).
  24. Y. Kanda, H. Murai, M. Kagawa, and K. Fujii "Highly stable 160-Gb/s field transmission employing adaptive PMD compensator with ultra high time-resolution variable DGD generator," Proc. 34th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC2008) We3.E.6 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. M. E. Valkenburg, Analog Filters Design. Philadelphia: Holt and Rinehart and Winston (1982).
  26. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. New York: Academic (1989).
  27. S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, "40 GHz actively mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector laser diode module with an impedance-matching circuit for efficient RF signal injection," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1960-1964 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Kagawa, H. Murai, H. Tsuji, K. Sasaki, and K. Fujii, "Control and Stabilization of bit-wise phase correlation in 160 (4 x 40) Gbit/s OTDM signal and its impact on transmission," Opt. Express 16, 10039-10052 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Otani, Y. Tsuda, and K. Igawa, "Development of Polarization Diversity Sampling Head Unit using Organic AANP Crystals and 160Gb/s Far-end Waveform Measurement," IEEJ Trans. FM 126, 409-413 (2006). [CrossRef]
  30. S. Bergano, F. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, "Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems," Photon. Techenol. Lett. 5, 304-306 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited