OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 15 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 12944–12959

Monitoring of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the south of Portugal by ground-based and satellite observations

Daniele Bortoli, Ana Maria Silva, Maria João Costa, Ana Filipa Domingues, and Giorgio Giovanelli  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 15, pp. 12944-12959 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (744 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The SPATRAM (Spectrometer for Atmospheric TRAcers Monitoring) instrument has been developed as a result of the collaboration between CGE-UE, ISAC-CNR and Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA). SPATRAM is a multi-purpose UV-Vis-scanning spectrometer (250 – 950 nm) and it is installed at the Observatory of the CGE, in Evora, since April 2004. A brief description of the instrument is given, highlighting the technological innovations with respect to the previous version of similar equipment. The need for such measurements automatically taken on a routine basis in south-western European regions, specifically in Portugal, has encouraged the development and installation of the equipment and constitutes a major driving force for the present work. The main features and some improvements introduced in the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) algorithms are discussed. The results obtained applying DOAS methodology to the SPATRAM spectrometer measurements of diffused spectral sky radiation are presented in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). NO2 confirms the typical seasonal cycle reaching the maximum of (6.5 ± 0.3) × 10+15 molecules cm−2 for the sunset values (PM), during the summer season, and the minimum of (1.55 ± 0.07) × 10+15 molecules cm−2 for the sunrise values (AM) in winter. O3 presents the maximum total column of (433 ± 5) Dobson Unit (DU) in the spring season and the minimum of (284 ± 3) DU during the fall period. The huge daily variations of the O3 total column during the spring season are analyzed and discussed. The ground-based results obtained for NO2 and O3 column contents are compared with data from satellite-borne equipment (GOME - Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; TOMS - Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer) and it is shown that the two data sets are in good agreement. The correlation coefficient for the comparison of the ground-based/satellite data for O3 is of 0.97.

© 2009 OSA

OCIS Codes
(010.1280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric composition
(010.4950) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Ozone
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(300.6190) Spectroscopy : Spectrometers

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

Original Manuscript: April 2, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 7, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 9, 2009
Published: July 20, 2009

Daniele Bortoli, Ana Maria Silva, Maria João Costa, Ana Filipa Domingues, and Giorgio Giovanelli, "Monitoring of atmospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the south of Portugal by ground-based and satellite observations," Opt. Express 17, 12944-12959 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. K. Angell and J. Korshover, “Global variation in total ozone and layer mean ozone: an update through 1981,” J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 22(9), 1611–1627 (1983). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Bojkov and V. E. Fioletov, “Estimating the global ozone characteristics during the last 30 years,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16537–16551 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. W. C. Wang, Y.-C. Zhuang, and R. D. Bojkov, “Climate implication of observed changes in ozone vertical distribution at middle and high latitudes in the northern hemisphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(15), 1567–1570 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Randel, R. S. Stolarski, D. M. Cunnold, J. A. Logan, M. J. Newchurch, and J. M. Zawodny, “Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone,” Science 285(5434), 1689–1692 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. J. Orsolini, H. Eskes, G. Hansen, U. P. Hoppe, A. Kylling, E. Kyrö, J. Notholt, R. A. van der and P. von der Gathen, “Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 3256–3275 (2003).
  6. S. Solomon and R. Garcia, “On the distribution of Nitrogen Dioxide in the High latitude stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C9), 5229–5239 (1983). [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Noxon, E. C. Whipple, and R. S. Hyde, “Stratospheric NO2 1. Observational Method and behaviour at mid latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 84, 5047–5065 (1979).
  8. F. Evangelisti, A. Baroncelli, P. Bonasoni, G. Giovanelli, and F. Ravegnani, “Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants,” Appl. Opt. 34(15), 2737–2744 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Bortoli, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, I. Kostadinov, and A. Petritoli, “Stratospheric Nitrogen Dioxide in the Antarctic,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(16), 3395–3412 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Hofmann, P. Bonasoni, M. de Maziere, F. Evangelisti, G. Giovanelli, A. Goldman, F. Goutail, J. Harder, R. Jakoubek, P. Johnston, J. Kerr, T. Mcelroy, R. Mckenzie, G. Mount, U. Platt, J. P. Pommereau, A. Sarkissian, P. Simon, S. Solomon, J. Stutz, A. Thomas, M. van Roozendael, and E. Wu, “Intercomparison of UV/Visible spectrometers for measurements of stratospheric NO2 for the network for the detection of stratospheric changes,” J. Geophys. Res. 100(D8), 16765–16791 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. H. K. Roscoe, P. V. Johnston, M. van Roozendael, A. Richter, A. Sarkissian, J. Roscoe, K. E. Preston, J.-C. Lambert, C. Hermans, W. DeCuyper, S. Dzienus, T. Winterrath, J. Burrows, F. Goutail, J.-P. Pommereau, E. D'Almeida, J. Hottier, C. Coureul, R. Didier, I. Pundt, L. M. Bartlett, C. T. McElroy, J. E. Kerr, A. Elokhov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, M. Premuda, I. Kostadinov, F. Erle, T. Wagner, K. Pfeilsticker, M. Kenntner, L. C. Marquard, M. Gil, O. Puentedura, M. Yela, D. W. Arlander, B. A. Kastad Hoiskar, C. W. Tellefsen, K. Karlsen Tornkvist, B. Heese, R. L. Jones, S. R. Aliwell, and R. A. Freshwater, “Slant columns measurements of O3 and NO2 during the NDSC intercomparison of zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometers in June 1996,” J. Atmos. Chem. 32(2), 281–314 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Bortoli, “SPATRAM – SPectrometer for Atmospheric Tracers Measurements, A prototype equipment for the monitoring of minor compounds of the Atmosphere, Ph.D. thesis, University of Evora (2005).
  13. D. Bortoli, A. M. Silva, and G. Giovanelli, “A new multipurpose UV-Vis spectrometer for air quality monitoring and climatic studies,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).
  14. J. P. Burrows, M. Weber, M. Buchwitz, V. Rozanov, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Richter, R. de Beek, R. Hoogen, K. Bramstedt, K.-U. Eichmann, M. Eisinger, and D. Perner, “The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission concept and first scientific results,” J. Atmos. Sci. 56(2), 151–175 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. R. D. McPeters, A. J. Krueger, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, C. G. Wellemeyer, C. J. Seftor, G. Jaross, O. Torres, L. Moy, G. Labow, W. Byerly, S. L. Taylor, T. Swissler, and R. P. Cebula, Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Data Products User's Guide (NASA Technical Publication, Maryland, 1998).
  16. S. Noel, M. W. Wuttke, J. Skupin, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, M. Gottwald, and E. Krieg, “The SCIAMACHY instrument on ENVISAT: first performance monitoring results,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium5 (Centre de Congrè Pierre Baudés, Toulouse,2003), pp. 3120–3122.
  17. U. Platt, “Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring By Spectroscopic Techniques, Sigrist, M. W, ed. (Wiley-IEEE, 1994), pp 27–84.
  18. A. S. Elokhov and A. N. Gruzdev, “Nitrogen Dioxide Column Content and Vertical Profile Measurements at the Zvenigorod Research Station,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 46, 763–777 (2000).
  19. W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, and W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipies - The Art of Scientific Computing, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986).
  20. D. J. Fish, “Measurements of stratospheric composition using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy,” Ph. D. thesis, University of Cambridge (1994).
  21. K. V. Chance and R. J. D. Spurr, “Ring effect studies: Rayleigh scattering, including molecular parameters for rotational Raman scattering, and the Fraunhofer spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 36(21), 5224–5230 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. Kostadinov, G. Giovanelli, F. Ravegnani, F. Evangelisti, P. Bonasoni, R. Werner, and U. Bonafè, “Polarization and Ring Effect Influences upon Stratospheric DOAS Measurements,” Proc. SPIE 3106, 74–83 (1997). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Vaughan, H. K. Roscoe, L. M. Bartlett, F. M. O’Connor, A. Sarkissian, M. Van Roozendael, J.-C. Lambert, P. C. Simon, K. Karlsen, B. A. K. Høiskar, D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, R. A. Freshwater, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, S. B. Andersen, D. G. Drew, P. A. Hughes, D. Moore, J. Mellqvist, E. Hegels, T. Klupfel, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt, “An intercomparison of ground-based UV-visible sensors of ozone and NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D1D1), 1411–1422 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. A. Petritoli, G. Giovanelli, P. Bonasoni, T. Colombo, F. Evangelisti, U. Bonafe, D. Bortoli, Iv. Kostadinov, and F. Ravegnani, “Ground Based NO2 and O3 Analysis at Mt. Cimone Station during 1995-1996: a case study for spring 1995 NO2 concentration profile, in Spectroscopic Atmospheric Monitoring Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 3867, 280–289 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. D. V. Ionov, V. P. Sinyakov, and V. K. Semenov, “Validation of GOME (ERS-2) NO2 vertical column data with ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan),” Adv. Space Res. 37(12), 2254–2260 (2006). [CrossRef]
  26. V. E. Fioletov, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, N. Krotkov, and J. R. Herman, “Comparison of Brewer ultraviolet irradiance measurements with total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite retrievals,” Opt. Eng. 41(12), 3051–3061 (2002). [CrossRef]
  27. M. L. Salby and P. F. Callaghan, “Fluctuations of total ozone and their relationship to stratospheric air motions,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D2), 2715–2727 (1993). [CrossRef]
  28. G. Nikulin and A. Karpechko, “The mean meridional circulation and mid-latitude ozone buildup,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3159–3172 (2005). [CrossRef]
  29. R. D. Bojkov and D. S. Balis, “Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1957-2000,” Ann. Geophys. 19, 797–807 (2001). [CrossRef]
  30. G. Koch, H. Wernli, C. Schwierz, J. Staehelin, and T. Peter, “A composite study on the structure and formation of ozone miniholes and minihighs over central Europe,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(12), L12810 (2005). [CrossRef]
  31. I. Wohltmann, M. Rex, D. Brunner, and J. Mader, “Integrated equivalent latitude as a proxy for dynamical changes in ozone column,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32(9), 3395–3412 (2005). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Galliani, A. M. Siani, N. J. Muthama, and S. Palmieri, “Synoptic-scale fluctuations of total ozone in the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 14(10), 1044–1050 (1996).
  33. M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, J. M. Vaquero, and J. A. García, “Ozone mini-hole over southwestern Spain during January 2004: Influence over ultraviolet radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L10808 (2007). [CrossRef]
  34. A. Poberovskii, A. Shashkin, D. V. Ionov, Y. M. Timofeev, D. Ionov, and Y. Timofeev, “NO2 content variations near St. Petersburg as inferred from ground-based and satellite measurements of scattered solar radiation,” Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(4), 505–513 (2007). [CrossRef]
  35. K. E. Preston, D. J. Fish, H. K. Roscoe, and R. L. Jones, “Accurate Derivation of Total and Stratospheric Vertical Columns of NO2 from Ground-Based Zenith-Sky Measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 163–172 (1998).
  36. R. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, and S. Solomon, “Altitude distributions of stratospheric constituents from ground-based measurements at twilight,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(D8), 15499–15511 (1991). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited