OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 17 — Aug. 17, 2009
  • pp: 15104–15117

White-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement

Zhiguang Xu, Vijay Shilpiekandula, Kamal Youcef-toumi, and Soon Fatt Yoon  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 17, pp. 15104-15117 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.015104


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (890 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A special configuration of white-light scanning interferometer is described for measuring the absolute air gap thickness between two planar plates brought into close proximity. The measured gap is not located in any interference arm of the interferometer, but acts as an amplitude-and-phase modulator of the light source. Compared with the common white-light interferometer our approach avoids the influence of the chromatic dispersion of the planar plates on the gap thickness quantification. It covers a large measurement range of from approximate contact to tens of microns with a high resolution of 0.1 nm. Detailed analytical models are presented and signal-processing algorithms based on convolution and correlation techniques are developed. Practical measurements are carried out and the experimental results match well with the analysis and simulation. Short-time and long-time repeatabilities are both tested to prove the high performance of our method.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.4640) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical instruments

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: May 28, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 29, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: July 9, 2009
Published: August 11, 2009

Citation
Zhiguang Xu, Vijay Shilpiekandula, Kamal Youcef-toumi, and Soon Fatt Yoon, "White-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement," Opt. Express 17, 15104-15117 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-15104


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. E. EVLASOV, "Evaluating the quality of optical surfaces by the width of interference fringes," Meas. Tech.  12, 942-943 (1969). [CrossRef]
  2. G. W. Meindersma, C. M. Guijt, and A. B. De Haan, "Water Recycling and Desalination by Air Gap Membrane Distillation," Environ. Prog. 24, 434-44 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Li, C. Liu, X. D. Dai, H. H. Chen, Y. Liang, H. L. Sun, H. Tian, and X. P. Ding, "PMMA microfluidic devices with three-dimensional features for blood cell filtration," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 095021 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Dhinojwala and S. Granick, "Micron-gap rheo-optics with parallel plates," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8664-8667 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ionescu-Zanetti, J. T. Nevill, D. Di Carlo, K. H. Jeong, and L. P. Lee, "Nanogap capacitors: sensitivity to sample permittivity changes," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 24305 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Yu, T. A. Savas, G. S. Taylor, A. Guiseppe-Elie, H. I. Smith, and F. Stellacci, "Supramolecular nanostamping: Using DNA as movable type," Nano Lett. 5, 1061-1064 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. Shilpiekandula, "Progress through Mechanics: Small-scale Gaps," Mech. 35, 3-6 (2006).
  8. B. Karp and G. Adam, "Small gap width measurement with a finite X-ray source", NDT&E International  27, 21-25 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Kim, M. S. Kim, J. H. Bae, J. H.k Kwon, H. B. Lee, and S. H. Jeong, "Gap measurement by position-sensitive detectors," Appl. Opt. 39, 2584-2591 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Clifton, A. R. Mount, G. M. Alder, and D. Jardine, "Ultrasonic measurement of the inter-electrode gap in electrochemical machining," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 42, 1259-1267 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. http://www.keyence.com/products/vision/laser/lt9000/lt9000.php
  12. E. E. Moon, P. N. Everett, M. W. Meinhold, M. K. Mondol, and H. I. Smith, "Novel mask-wafer gap measurement scheme with nanometer-level detectivity," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 2698-2702 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. E. E. Moon, P. N. Everett, K. Rhee, and H. I. Smith, "Simultaneous measurement of gap and superposition in a precision aligner for x-ray nanolithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3969-3973 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. D. C. Flanders and T. M. Lyszcarz, "A precision wide-range optical gap measurement technique," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1, 1196-1199 (1983). [CrossRef]
  15. R. L. Johnson, J. R. P. Angel, M. Lioyd-Hart, and G. Z. Angeli, "Miniature instrument for the measurement of gap thickness using poly-chromatic interferometry," Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 3762, 245-253 (1999).
  16. A. Courteville, R. Wilhelm, and F. Garcia, "A novel, low coherence fibre optic interferometer for position and thickness measurements with unattained accuracy," Proc. of SPIE  6189, 618918 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Profilometry with line-field Fourier-domain interferometry," Opt. Express 13, 695-701 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. G. Podoleanu, "Unique interpretation of Talbot Bands and Fourier domain white light interferometry," Opt. Express 15, 9867-9876 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. U. Schnell, R. Dandliker, and S. Gray, "Dispersive white-light interferometry for absolute distance measurement with dielectric multilayer systems on the target," Opt. Lett. 21, 528-530 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Hlubina, D. Ciprian, J. Lunaek, and M. lesnak, "Thickness of SiO2 thin film on silicon wafer measured by dispersive white-light spectral interferometry,"Appl. Phys. B 84, 511-516 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. G. Coppola, P. Ferraro, M. Iodice, and S. D. Nicola, "Method for measuring the refractive index and the thickness of transparent plates with a lateral-shear, wavelength-scanning interferometer," Appl. Opt.  42, 3882-3887 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Maddaloni, G. Coppola, P. D. Natale, S. D. Nicola, P. Ferraro, M. Gioffré, and M. Iodice, "Thickness measurement of thin transparent plates with a broad-band wavelength scanning interferometer," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1349-1351 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. P. A. Flournoy, R. W. McClure, and G. Wyntjes, "White-Light Interferometric Thickness Gauge," App. Opt. 11, 1907-1915 (1972). [CrossRef]
  24. J. Zhang, Z. H. Lu, and L. J. Wang, "Precision refractive index measurements of air, N2, O2, Ar, and CO2 with a frequency comb," Appl. Opt. 3143-3151 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and I. T. Young, Signal and systems (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. USA, 1983).
  26. Physik Instruments Piezo Stage Catalog, "Nanopositioning / Piezoelectrics," (Physik Instruments 2009) http://www.physikinstrumente.com/en/pdf_extra/2009_PI_Nanopositioning_Systems_Piezo_Stage_Catalog.pdf
  27. M. Gutierrez and K. Youcef-Toumi, "Programmable Separation for Biologically Active Molecules", Proceedings of 2006 ASM, Design Engineering Division, 119, pp 13-20, (2006).
  28. V. Shilpiekandula and K. Youcef-Toumi, "Modeling and Control of a Programmable Filter for Separation of Biologically Active Molecules," In Proceedings of American Control Conference, 1, 394-399, (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited