OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 19 — Sep. 14, 2009
  • pp: 16994–16999

Electromechanical film as a photoacoustic transducer

Albert Manninen, Johan Sand, Jaakko Saarela, Tapio Sorvajärvi, Juha Toivonen, and Rolf Hernberg  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 19, pp. 16994-16999 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (128 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An electromechanical film, EMFi, is utilized as a transducer in a photoacoustic (PA) gas sensor. The film is a sensitive acoustic transducer, it is easily formable, and it exhibits a wide frequency response regardless of its large surface area. As a demonstration of its capabilities, the EMFi-based PA detector is used to measure NO2 with pulsed excitation at 436 and 473 nm. The minimum detectable absorption coefficient is extrapolated to be 5·10−7 cm−1. Improvements for EMFi-based PA detector are discussed.

© 2009 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(300.6360) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, laser

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: June 23, 2009
Revised Manuscript: August 25, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 6, 2009
Published: September 9, 2009

Albert Manninen, Johan Sand, Jaakko Saarela, Tapio Sorvajärvi, Juha Toivonen, and Rolf Hernberg, "Electromechanical film as a photoacoustic transducer," Opt. Express 17, 16994-16999 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Stenberg, R. Hernberg, and J. Vattulainen, “Analysis of pollutant chemistry in combustion by in situ pulsed photoacoustic laser diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 34(36), 8400–8408 (1995), http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-34-36-8400 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. A. Beck, R. Niessner, and C. Haisch, “Development and characterization of a mobile photoacoustic sensor for on-line soot emission monitoring in diesel exhaust gas,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 375(8), 1136–1143 (2003), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-003-1810-8 . [PubMed]
  3. T. Schmid, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy for process analysis,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(5), 1071–1086 (2006), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p3762k758px0g825 . [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bohren, and M. Sigrist, “Compact optical parametric oscillator based tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser spectrometer for intracavity photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1999. CLEO ’99 pp. 190 – 191 (1999). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=834067
  5. M. Nägele and M. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for tracegas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000), http://www.springerlink.com/content/f54nkqlg6ppgbxkw/ .
  6. A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic spectroscopy (Robert E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1980) pp. 138.
  7. M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and K. Kirjavainen, “ElectroMechanical Film (EMFi) - a new multipurpose electrets material,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 84(1-2), 95–102 (2000), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/09244247/2000/00000084/00000001/art00269 . [CrossRef]
  8. M. Paajanen, J. Lekkala, and H. Välimäki, “Electromechanical modeling and properties of the electret film EMFI,” IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 8(4), 629–636 (2001), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=946715 . [CrossRef]
  9. J. Hillenbrand and G. M. Sessler, “High-sensitivity piezoelectric microphones based on stacked cellular polymer films (L),” Acoustical Society of America Journal 116(6), 3267–3270 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. V. P. Zharov, and V. S. Letokhov, Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) pp. 112.
  11. M. Paajanen, M. Wegener, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Understanding the role of the gas in the voids during corona charging of cellular electret films - a way to enhance their piezoelectricity,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34(16), 2482–2488 (2001), http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/34/2482 . [CrossRef]
  12. V. Bovtun, J. Döring, J. Bartusch, U. Beck, A. Erhard, and Y. Yakymenko, “Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 88(4), 737–743 (2007), http://www.springerlink.com/content/3253n4610uk94818/ . [CrossRef]
  13. J. L. Ealo, F. Seco, and A. R. Jimenez, “Broadband EMFi-based transducers for ultrasonic air applications,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 55(4), 919–929 (2008), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=4494787 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Streicher, M. Kaltenbacher, R. Lerch, and H. Peremans, “Broadband EMFi Ultrasonic Transducer for Bat Research,” in 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium pp. 1629–1632 (2005). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/10674/33680/01603174.pdf?arnumber=1603174
  15. A. Streicher, R. Muller, H. Peremans, M. Katenbacher, and R. Lerch, “Ferroelectrets: ultrasonic transducer for a biomimetic sonar system,” in 2004 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1142–1145 (2004). http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/wrapper.jsp?arnumber=1417982
  16. I. G. Calasso and M. W. Sigrist, “Selection criteria for microphones used in pulsed nonresonant gas-phase photoacoustics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(12), 4569–4578 (1999), http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=RSINAK000070000012004569000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes . [CrossRef]
  17. S. Schäfer, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics,” Appl. Opt. 36(15), 3202–3211 (1997), http://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-36-15-3202 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. C. Vandaele, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, M. Roozendael, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, and R. Colin, “Fourier transform measurement of NO2 absorption cross-section in the visible range at room temperature,” J. Atmos. Chem. 25(3), 289–305 (1996), http://www.springerlink.com/content/l4521j3t0w962533 . [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited