OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 20 — Sep. 28, 2009
  • pp: 18279–18291

In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation

Sergi Gallego, Andrés Márquez, Stephan Marini, Elena Fernández, Manuel Ortuño, and Inmaculada Pascual  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 20, pp. 18279-18291 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.018279


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (343 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Molecular diffusion effects have been widely studied inside photopolymers for holographic applications. Recently some works have focused on low spatial frequencies to evaluate in real time the monomer diffusion effects. Assuming a Fermi-Dirac function-based profile, we have fitted the diffracted intensities, reflected and transmitted (up to the 8th order), to obtain the phase and surface profile of the recorded gratings. We have studied the influence of diffusion in polyvinyl-alcohol/acrylamide for the range of spatial frequencies between 2 lines/mm and 6 lines/mm. We have demonstrated the influence of the spatial frequency on the magnitude and sign of the material volume variations. We also studied in dark the evolution of the grating shape. We show that it is possible to achieve diffractive gratings with diffraction efficiency in the first order near 35% if the in dark evolution is taken into account. Furthermore we present a method to calculate the monomer diffusivity in photopolymers. The differential equation is deduced and solved, and experimental average value is obtained (D=1.1·10−8 cm2s−1).

© 2009 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(290.1990) Scattering : Diffusion

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: July 8, 2009
Revised Manuscript: August 18, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 2, 2009
Published: September 25, 2009

Citation
Sergi Gallego, Andrés Márquez, Stephan Marini, Elena Fernández, Manuel Ortuño, and Inmaculada Pascual, "In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation," Opt. Express 17, 18279-18291 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-20-18279


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Pu and D. Psaltis, “High-density recording in photopolymer-based holographic three-dimensional disks,” Appl. Opt. 35(14), 2389–2398 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Tomita, K. Furushima, K. Ochi, K. Ishizu, A. Tanaka, M. Ozawa, M. Hidaka, and K. Chikama, “Organic nanoparticle (hyperbranched polymer)-dispersed photopolymers for volume holographic storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Márquez, S. Neipp, M. Gallego, A. Ortuño, Beléndez, and I. Pascual, “Edge enhanced imaging using PVA/acrylamide photopolymer gratings,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1510–1512 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Weiss, E. Millul, and A. A. Friesem, “Improvements in holographic photopolymers at Weizmann Institute of Science,” SPIE International Technical Group Newsletter: Optics in Information Systems 15(1), 3 (2004).
  5. J. V. Kelly, M. R. Gleeson, C. E. Close, F. T. O’ Neill, J. T. Sheridan, S. Gallego, and C. Neipp, “Temporal analysis of grating formation in photopolymer using the nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion model,” Opt. Express 13, 6990–7004 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Gallego, C. Neipp, M. Ortuño, A. Beléndez, E. Fernández, and I. Pascual, “Analysis of diffusion in depth in photopolymer materials,” Opt. Commun. 274(1), 43–49 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Pavani, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Photoinduced surface relief studies in an acrylamide-based photopolymer,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(1), 43–48 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Márquez, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, I. Pascual, A. Fimia, and A. Beléndez, “Production of computer-generated phase holograms using graphic devices: application to correlation filters,” Opt. Eng. 39(6), 1612–1619 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Gallego, A. Márquez, D. Méndez, S. Marini, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, “Spatial phase modulation-based study of PVA/AA photopolymers in the low spatial frequency range,” Appl. Opt. 48, 4403–4413 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, “Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2558–2564 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Gallego, A. Márquez, D. Méndez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuño, M. L. Alvarez, E. Fernandez, A. Beléndez, and I. Pascual, “Real-time interferometric characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol based photopolymer at the zero spatial frequency limit,” Appl. Opt. 46(30), 7506–7512 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Gallego, A. Márquez, D. Méndez, M. Ortuño, C. Neipp, M. L. Alvarez, A. Beléndez, E. Fernández, and I. Pascual, “Analysis of PVA/AA based photopolymers at the zero spatial frequency limit using interferometric methods,” Appl. Opt. 47(14), 2557–2563 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Gallego, A. Márquez, D. Méndez, C. Neipp, M. Ortuño, A. Beléndez, E. Fernández, and I. Pascual, “Direct analysis of monomer diffusion times in polyvinyl/acrylamide materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073306 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Endo, F. Sanda, “Ring-opening polymerization, anionic (with expansion in volume),” Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia, 10, CRC Press, Inc.,7550–3, (1996).
  15. G. Ramos, A. Álvarez-Herrero, T. Belenguer, F. del Monte, and D. Levy, “Shrinkage control in a photopolymerizable hybrid solgel material for holographic recording,” Appl. Opt. 43(20), 4018–4024 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Dhar, M. G. Schones, T. L. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, “Temperature-induced changes in photopolymer volume holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1337–1339 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. I. Naydenova, E. Mihaylova, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Holographic patterning of acrylamide-based photopolymer surface,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4878–4889 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Babeva, I. Naydenova, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Method for characterization of diffusion properties of photopolymerisable systems,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8487–8497 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. Moreau, Y. Renotte, and Y. Lion, “Characterization of dupont photopolymer: determination of kinetic parameters in a diffusion model,” Appl. Opt. 41(17), 3427–3435 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. T. O’Neill, J. R. Lawrence, and J. T. Sheridan, “Improvement of holographic recording material using aerosol sealant,” J. Opt. 3, 20–25 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited