OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 3 — Feb. 2, 2009
  • pp: 1527–1534

Slot waveguides with polycrystalline silicon for electrical injection

Kyle Preston and Michal Lipson  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 3, pp. 1527-1534 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.001527


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2023 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate horizontal slot waveguides using high-index layers of polycrystalline and single crystalline silicon separated by a 10 nm layer of silicon dioxide. We measure waveguide propagation loss of 7 dB/cm and a ring resonator intrinsic quality factor of 83,000. The electric field of the optical mode is strongly enhanced in the low-index oxide layer, which can be used to induce a strong modal gain when an active material is embedded in the slot. Both high-index layers are made of electrically conductive silicon which can efficiently transport charge to the slot region. The incorporation of conductive silicon materials with high-Q slot waveguide cavities is a key step for realizing electrical tunneling devices such as electrically pumped silicon-based light sources.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 26, 2008
Revised Manuscript: January 16, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: January 20, 2009
Published: January 26, 2009

Citation
Kyle Preston and Michal Lipson, "Slot waveguides with polycrystalline silicon for electrical injection," Opt. Express 17, 1527-1534 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1527


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. Pavesi, "Silicon-Based Light Sources for Silicon Integrated Circuits," Advances in Optical Technologies (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Rojo Romeo, J. Van Campenhout, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Di Cioccio, "Heterogeneous integration of electrically driven microdisk based laser sources for optical interconnects and photonic ICs," Opt. Express 14, 3864-3871 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, M. Shimizu, Y. Ohmori, and M. Kobayashi, "Guided-wave laser based on erbium-doped silica planar lightwave circuit," Electron. Lett. 27, 334-335 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Polman, B. Min, J. Kalkman, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold erbium-implanted toroidal microlaser on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037-1039 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 10092-10101 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, "Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16659-16669 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, "1.54 µm photoluminescence of Er3+ doped into SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals: Evidence for energy transfer from Si nanocrystals to Er3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198-1200 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. L. D. Negro, R. Li, J. Warga, and S. N. Basu, "Sensitized erbium emission from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 181105 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Sun, P. Dong, N. N. Feng, C. Y. Hong, J. Michel, M. Lipson, and L. Kimerling, "Horizontal single and multiple slot waveguides: optical transmission at λ = 1550 nm," Opt. Express 15, 17967-17972 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, P. Lyan, J. P. Colonna, P. E. Gautier, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Blasco, F. Cuesta-Soto, and P. Sanchis, "Deep-UV Lithography Fabrication of Slot Waveguides and Sandwiched Waveguides for Nonlinear Applications," in Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2007), pp.222-224.
  16. R. M. Pafchek, J. Li, R. S. Tummidi, and T. L. Koch, "Low loss Si-SiO2-Si 8nm slot waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThT3.
  17. Y. Lebour, R. Guider, E. Jordana, J.-M. Fedeli, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernandez, B. Garrido, N. Daldosso, and L. Pavesi, "High quality coupled ring resonators based on silicon clusters slot waveguide," in Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008), pp.215-217.
  18. J. B. Lasky, "Wafer bonding for silicon-on-insulator technologies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 78-80 (1986). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Sangwoo, S. Taichi, J. P. Denton, and G. W. Neudeck, "Multiple layers of silicon-on-insulator islands fabrication by selective epitaxial growth," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 20, 194-196 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Monolithic 3-D Silicon Photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1796 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. G. Cocorullo, F. G. Della Corte, R. de Rosa, I. Rendina, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, "Amorphous silicon-based guided-wave passive and active devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 997-1002 (1998). [CrossRef]
  22. R. Orobtchouk, S. Jeannot, B. Han, T. Benyattou, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Mur, "Ultra compact optical link made in amorphous silicon waveguide," Proc. SPIE 6183, 618304-618310 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. D. K. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, M. A. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. J. Conway, A. T. Pomerene, D. N. Carothers, M. J. Grove, D. M. Gill, M. S. Rasras, S. S. Patel, and A. E. White, "Low-Loss Amorphous Silicon Channel Waveguides for Integrated Photonics," in Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp.255-257.
  24. R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (Cambridge University Press, 1991).
  25. T. Kamins, Polycrystalline Silicon for Integrated Circuits and Displays, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, 1998).
  26. L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. K. Preston, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, "Polysilicon photonic resonators for large-scale 3D integration of optical networks," Opt. Express 15, 17283-17290 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, "Low loss (~6.45dB/cm) sub-micron polycrystalline silicon waveguide integrated with efficient SiON waveguide coupler," Opt. Express 16, 6425-6432 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Nitkowski, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Cavity-enhanced on-chip absorption spectroscopy using microring resonators," Opt. Express 16, 11930-11936 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. F. Dell'Olio and V. M. Passaro, "Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 4977-4993 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. W. J. Miniscalco, "Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 234-250 (1991). [CrossRef]
  33. E. Snoeks, G. N. van den Hoven, and A. Polman, "Optimization of an Er-doped silica glass optical waveguide amplifier," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1680-1684 (1996). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment," Opt. Express 13, 1515-1530 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited