OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 4 — Feb. 16, 2009
  • pp: 2518–2529

Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 4, pp. 2518-2529 (2009)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.002518


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (337 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We simulate apertureless near-field optical imaging and obtain phase and amplitude scans of structured substrates for elastic scattering. The solution of the three-dimensional Maxwell equations does not involve approximations and we include large tips and substrates, strong interaction, interferometric detection and demodulation at higher harmonics. Such modeling represents a significant step towards quantitative simulations and offers the attractive possibility to study the individual influence of each relevant experimental parameter. We typically obtain highly localized signatures of the interaction of the tip with gold inclusions, superposed on a slowly varying background signal. The relative importance of both contributions and the achievable lateral resolution are strongly dependent on the geometry and scanning conditions. The simulations show sensitivity mostly to the first nanometers of the sample and underline the importance of scanning near the sample and being careful with mechanical anharmonicities on the tip oscillation. They also help to determine the influence of oscillation amplitude and demodulation harmonic.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh
(180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy

ToC Category:
Microscopy

History
Original Manuscript: December 1, 2008
Revised Manuscript: December 14, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: December 15, 2008
Published: February 6, 2009

Citation
R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, "Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast," Opt. Express 17, 2518-2529 (2009)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-4-2518


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical Stethoscopy: Image Recording with Resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Hell, “Toward fluorescence nanoscopy,” Nat. Biotech. 21, 1347–1355 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limit Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3, 793–795 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Far-field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning Interferometric Apertureless Microscopy: Optical Imaging at 10 Angstrom Resolution,” Science 269, 1083–1085 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, “Near-Field Probing of Vibrational Absorption for Chemical Microscopy,” Nature 399, 134–137 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Performance of Visible and Mid-Infrared Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopes,” J. Microsc. 210, 311–314 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope with sub-10nm Resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043703 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sanchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-Resolution Near-Field Raman Microscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Ocelic, R. Hillenbrand, “Subwavelength-Scale Tailoring of Surface Phonon Polaritons by Focused Ion-Beam Implantation,” Nat. Materials 3, 606–609 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Ma, J. M. Gerton, L. A. Wade, S. R. Quake, “Fluorescence Near-Field Microscopy of DNA at sub-10nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 260801 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. J. T. Krug, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Design of Near-Field Optical Probes with Optimal Field Enhancement by Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 10895–10901 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, “Optical Antennas: Resonators for Local Field Enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632–4642 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Simulation of Optical Near and Far Fields of Dielectric Apertureless Scanning Probes,” Nanotechnology 17, 475–482 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, H. P. Lu, “Finite Element Method Simulation of the Field Distribution for AFM Tip-Enhanced Surface-Enhanced Raman Scanning Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, T. López-Ríos, “Resonance Shift Effects in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Renger, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, V. Deckert, “Evanescent Wave Scattering and Local Electric Field Enhancement at Ellipsoidal Silver Particles in the Vicinity of a Glass Surface.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1362–1367 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Roth, N. C. Panoiu, M. M. Adams, R. M. Osgood, C. C. Neacsu, M. B. Raschke, “Resonant-plasmon field enhancement from asymmetrically illuminated conical metallic-probe tips,” Opt. Express 14, 2921–2931 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Tip-Substrate Interaction in Optical Near Field Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 195410 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Labardi, S. Patanè, M. Allegrini, “Artifact-Free Near-Field Optical Imaging by Apertureless Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, “Pure Optical Contrast in Scattering-Type Scanning Nearfield Microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202, 77–83 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001). [CrossRef]
  23. R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, “Coherent Imaging of Nanoscale Plasmon Patterns with a Carbon Nanotube Optical Probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368–370 (2003). [CrossRef]
  24. R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, P. Royer, “Probing Photonic and Optoelectronic Structures by Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy.” Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441–452 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, G. C. Walker, “Field Localization in Very Small Aperture Lasers Studied by Apertureless Near-Field Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6192–6197 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, K. Kern, “Direct Near-Field Optical Imaging of Higher Order Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett 8, 3155–3159 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optial Spectroscopy of a Surface at the Nanometer Scale: A Theoretical Study in Real Space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Imaging with Reflection Near-Field Optical Microscope: Contributions of Middle and Far Fields,” Opt. Commun. 130, 337–347 (1996). [CrossRef]
  29. R. A. Frazin, D. G. Fischer, P. S. Carney, “Information Content of the Near Field: Two-Dimensional Samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1050–1057 (2004). [CrossRef]
  30. R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of Dielectric Contrast and Topography on the Near Field Scattered by an Inhomogenous Surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2716–2725 (1995). [CrossRef]
  31. P. M. Adam, J. L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, P. Royer, “Analysis of the Influence of the Tip Vibration in the Formation of Images in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, H. Fuchs, “Material Contrast in Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy at 1-10 Nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 7977–7984 (1997). [CrossRef]
  33. A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “Exact Calculation of Maxwell Equations for a Tip-Metallic Interface Configuration:Application to Atomic Resolution by Photon Emission,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 3654–3657 (1996). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Quinten, “Evanescent Wave Scattering by Aggregates of Clusters – Application to Optical Near-Field Microscopy,” App. Phys. B 70, 579–586 (2000). [CrossRef]
  35. R. Fikri, T. Grosges, D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy: Numerical Modeling of the Lock-in Detection,” Opt. Commun. 232, 15–23 (2004). [CrossRef]
  36. C. Hafner, Post-modern Electromagnetics: Using Intelligent MaXwell Solvers (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, 1999).
  37. E. Moreno, D. Erni, C. Hafner, R. Vahldieck, “Multiple Multipole Method with Automatic Multipole Setting Applied to the Simulation of Surface Plasmons in Metallic Nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 101–111 (2002). [CrossRef]
  38. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  39. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983). [CrossRef]
  40. R. Esteban, “Apertureless SNOM : Realistic Modeling of the Imaging Process and Measurements of Resonant Plasmonic Nanostructures.” Ph.D. thesis, EPFL (2007).
  41. M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, “Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy: Tip-Sample Coupling in Elastic Light Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5089–5091 (2003). [CrossRef]
  42. R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Complex Optical Constants on a Subwavelength Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. N. Anderson, P. Anger, A. Hartschuh, L. Novotny, “Subsurface Raman Imaging with Nanoscale Resolution,” Nano Lett. 6, 744–749 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. R. Vogelgesang, R. Esteban, K. Kern, “Beyond Lock-in Analysis for Volumetric Imaging in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 365–370 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, D. Barchiesi, P. Royer, “Definition of a Simple Resolution Criterion in an Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (A-SNOM): Contribution of the Tip Vibration and Lock-in Detection,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 45–52 (2004). [CrossRef]
  46. R. W. Stark, W. M. Heck, “Higher harmonics imaging in tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 74, 5111–5114 (2003). [CrossRef]
  47. A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Optical Nonlinearity versus Mechanical Anharmonicity Contrast in Dynamic Mode Apertureless Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 163115 (2005). [CrossRef]
  48. M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Infrared Spectroscopic Mapping of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses at Nanoscale Resolution,” Nano Lett. 6, 1307–1310 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. F. J. Giessibl, “Forces and frequency shifts in atomic-resolution dynamic-force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 16010–16015 (1997). [CrossRef]
  50. N. A. Burnham, O. P. Behrend, F. Oulevey, G. Gremaud, P.-J. Gallo, D. Gourdon, E. Dupas, A. J. Kulik, H. M. Pollock, G. A. D. Briggs, “How does a tip tap?” Nanotechnology 8, 67–75 (1997). [CrossRef]
  51. T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale-resolved subsurface imaging by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 8893–8899 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. B. B. Akhremitchev, S. Pollack, G. C. Walker, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Infrared Microscopy of a Rough Polymeric Surface,” Langmuir 17, 2774–2781 (2001). [CrossRef]
  53. J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, R. Hillenbrand, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 1529–1545 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-Scale Optical Imaging of Epitaxially Grown GaN and InN Islands Using Apertureless Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8503–8508 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited