OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 4 — Feb. 16, 2009
  • pp: 2906–2917

High sensitivity and large field enhancement of symmetry broken Au nanorings: effect of multipolar plasmon resonance and propagation

S. D. Liu, Z. S. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 4, pp. 2906-2917 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (658 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The multipolar plasmon resonance and propagation of Au nanorings with symmetry broken were analyzed by using DDA and FDTD methods. Based on the multipolar plasmon resonance and propagation, we proposed ring-nanosensors with high sensitivities and optical ring-nanoantennas with large local field enhancements. We revealed that the refractive index sensitivities of split nanorings are about 100% larger than those of perfect nanorings with same size; the local field intensity enhancement of split nanoring with three gaps has increased by 37% than that of dipole antennas.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

Original Manuscript: January 16, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 10, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: February 10, 2009
Published: February 11, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

S. D. Liu, Z. S. Zhang, and Q. Q. Wang, "High sensitivity and large field enhancement of symmetry broken Au nanorings: effect of multipolar plasmon resonance and propagation," Opt. Express 17, 2906-2917 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. M. McLellan, M. Geissler, and Y. Xia, "Edge spreading lithography and its application to the fabrication of mesoscopic gold and silver rings," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 10830 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Marczewski and W. A. Goedel, "The preparation of submicrometer-sized rings by embedding and selective etching of spherical silica particles," Nano Lett. 5, 295 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Jiang, G. G. Hembree, J. C. H. Spence, and J. Qiu, "Nanoring formation by direct-write inorganic electron-beam lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 551 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. B. Zheng, S. J. Wang, A. C. H. Huan, and Y. H. Wang, "Fabrication of large area ordered metal nanoring arrays for nanoscale optical sensors," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2532 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Yang. S. G. Jang, D. G. Choi, S. Kim, and H. K. Yu, "Nanomachining by colloidal lithography," Small 2, 458 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, "Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles," New J. Phys. 9, 53 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Peng and I. Kamiya, "Two methods to prepare nanorings/nanoholes for the fabrication of vertical nanotransistors," Nanotechnology 19, 315303 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. L. Hobbs, P. R. Larson, G. D. Lian, J. C. Keay, and M. B. Johnson, "Fabrication of nanoring arrays by sputter redeposition using porous alumina templates," Nano Lett. 4, 167 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. F. Yan and W. A. Goedel, "Preparation of mesoscopic gold rings using particle imprinted templates," Nano Lett. 4, 1193 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. F. Sun, J. C. Yu, and X. Wang, "Construction of size-controllable hierarchical nanoporous TiO2 ring arrays and their modifications," Chem. Mater. 18, 3774 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Zhao, H. Roberge, A. Yelon, and T. Veres, "New application of AAO template: A mold for nanoring and nanocone arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12352 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Duan, W. Cai, Y. Luo, Z. Li, and Y. Lei, "Hierarchical structured Ni nanorings and hollow sphere arrays by morphology inheritance based on ordered through-pore template and electrodeposition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 15729 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Wang, G. J. Yu, J. L. Gong, Q. T. Liu, H. J. Xu, D. Z. Zhu, and Z. Y. Zhu, "Large-area fabrication of periodic Fe nanorings with controllable aspect ratios in porous alumina templates," Nanotechnology 17, 1594 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Lei, W. Cai, and G. Wilde, "Highly ordered nanostructures with tunable size shape and properties: A new way to surface nano-patterning using ultra-thin alumina masks," Prog. Mater. Sci. 52, 465 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. H. G. Liu, C. W. Wang, J. P. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Hao, "Gold and silver nanorings formed at the air/water interface," Colloid Surf. A-Physicochem.Eng. Asp. 312, 203 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. Z. H. Yuan, W. Zhou, Y. Q. Duan, and L. J. Bie, "A simple approach for large-area fabrication of Ag nanorings," Nanotechnology 19, 075608 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. S. Liao, X. Chen, J. Chen, and P. S. Cremer, "Templating water stains for nanolithography," Nano Lett. 7, 2452 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. M. Garcia, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, K. Schmidt, T. Ngo, J. L. Feng, A. Lorke, J. Kottaus, and P. M. Petroff, "Intermixing and shape changes during the formation of InAs self-assembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2014 (1997). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Raz, D. Ritter, and G. Bahir, "Formation of InAs self-assembled quantum rings on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1706 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. X. Y. Kong, Y. Ding, R. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, "Single-crystal nanorings formed by epitaxial self-coiling of polar nanobelts," Science 303, 1348 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. X. W. Zhang, N. F. Chen, and F. Yan, "Heteroepitaxial gold (111) rings on mica substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203102 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Granados, and J. M. Garcia, "In(Ga)As self-assembled quantum ring formation by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2401 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Shen, and D. Chen, "Self-coiling of Ag2V4O11 nanobelts into perfect nanorings and microloops," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11762 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Lighting up dark plasmons of Bi-crystal silver ring-nanoantenna to enhance exciton-plasmon interactions," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. C. R. L. P. N. Jeukens, M. C. Lensen, F. J. P. Wijnen, J. A. A. W. Elemans, P. C. M. Christianen, A. E. Rowan, J. W. Gerritsen, R. J. M. Nolte, and J. C. Maan, "Polarized absorption and emission of ordered self-assembled porphyrin rings," Nano Lett. 4, 1401 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Lorke, R. J. Luyken, A. O. Govorov, and J. P. Kotthaus, "Spectroscopy of nanoscopic semiconductor rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2223 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. P. Li, D. Peyrade, M. Natali, A. Lebib, and Y. Chen, "Flux closure structures in cobalt rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1102 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, "Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. E. M. O. Jariwala, P. Mohanty, M. B. Ketchen, and R. A. Webb, "Diamagnetic persistent current in diffusive normal-metal rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1594 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. K. A. Matveev, A. I. Larkin, and L. I. Glazman, "Persistent current in superconducting nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 096802 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Zou, "Light-driven circular plasmon current in a silver nanoring," Opt. Lett. 33, 2113 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-18-2113. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. B. Wang, and G. P. Wang, "Plasmonic waveguide ring resonator at terahertz frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133106 (2006). [CrossRef]
  35. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. K. Y. Jung, F. L. Teixeira, and R. M. Reano, "Au/SiO2 nanoring plasmon waveguides at optical communication band," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2757 (2007). [CrossRef]
  37. A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Miniature plasmonic wave plates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-12-5664. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271 (2007). [CrossRef]
  40. G. Laurent, N. Félidj, J. Grand, J. Aubard, and G. Lévi, "Raman scattering images and spectra of gold ring arrays," Phys. Rev. B 73, 245417 (2006). [CrossRef]
  41. S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties," Nano Lett. 7, 1076 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Enhanced tenability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245417 (2007). [CrossRef]
  43. A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023121 (2008). [CrossRef]
  44. G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, "Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging," Adv. Mater. 17, 2683 (2005). [CrossRef]
  45. Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5, 119 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. S. Kim, J. M. Jung, D. G. Choi, H. T. Jung, and S. M. Yang, "Patterned arrays of Au rings for localized surface plasmon resonance," Langmuir 22, 7109 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured plasmonic sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. J. Aizpurua, L. Blanco, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Light scattering in gold nanorings," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 89, 11 (2004). [CrossRef]
  51. T. Grosjean, A. Fahys, M. Suarez, D. Charraut, R. Salut, and D. Courjon, "Annular nanoantenna on fibre micro-axicon," J. Microsc. 229, 354 (2007). [CrossRef]
  52. M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, "Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications," Opt. Commun. 270, 447 (2007). [CrossRef]
  53. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "Ahybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, "Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength," Nano Lett. 8, 2171 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008). [CrossRef]
  57. S. O. Demokritov, A. A. Serga, V. E. Demidov, B. Hillebrands, M. P. Kostylev, and B. A. Kalinikos, "Experimental observation of symmetry-breaking nonlinear modes in an active ring," Nature 426, 159 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103, 10856 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance," Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. E. M. Larsson, F. Hao, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, P. Nordlander, and D. S. Sutherland, "Plasmon hybridization in stacked double gold nanorings with reduced symmetry," Small 4, 1630 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008). [CrossRef]
  63. K. Li, L. Clime, L. Tay, B. Cui, M. Geissler, and T. Veres, "Multiple surface plasmon resonances and near-infrared field enhancement of gold nanowells," Anal. Chem. 80, 4945 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Multiple plasmon resonances from gold nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 143105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  65. A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Tuneable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonantors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093109 (2007). [CrossRef]
  66. A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Fabrication and tuning of nanoscale metallic ring and split-ring arrays," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2628 (2007). [CrossRef]
  67. F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, "Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings," Chem. Phys. Lett. 458, 262 (2008). [CrossRef]
  68. A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Enhanced nanoplasmonic optical sensors with reduced substrate effect," Nano Lett. 8, 3893 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  69. A. Mary, A. Dereux, and T. L. Ferrell, "Localized surface plasmons on a torus in the nonretarded approximation," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155426 (2006). [CrossRef]
  70. A. Mary, D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Bouhelier, and A. Dereux, "Optical absorption of torus-shaped metal nanoparticles in the visible range," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245422 (2007). [CrossRef]
  71. C. M. Dutta, T. A. Ali, D. W. Brandl, T. H. Park, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmonic properties of a metallic torus," J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084706 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  72. P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  73. B. T. Draine, and P. J. Flatau, "Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1491 (1994), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-11-4-1491 [CrossRef]
  74. A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: The finite-difference time-domain method (Artech House, Boston, 2005).
  75. P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972). [CrossRef]
  76. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007). [CrossRef]
  77. S. D. Liu, M. T. Cheng, Z. J. Yang, and Q. Q. Wang, "Surface plasmon propagation in a pair of metal nanowires coupled to a nanosized optical emitter," Opt. Lett. 33, 851 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-8-851. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  78. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  79. Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MOV (3012 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited