OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 6 — Mar. 16, 2009
  • pp: 4306–4316

Theoretical investigation of polarization-insensitive data format conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK in a nonlinear birefringent fiber

C. C. Wei, W. Astar, J. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, and G. M. Carter  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 6, pp. 4306-4316 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (648 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Polarization-insensitive conversion of return-to-zero (RZ) ON-OFF keying (RZ-OOK) to RZ binary phase-shift keying (RZ-BPSK) has been achieved by cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a nonlinear birefringent fiber. This work presents a theoretical analysis of the dependence of format conversion on pump-probe detuning, and the pump state-of-polarization (SOP) that can fluctuate unpredictably in a realistic system. An investigation of the impact of pump polarization fluctuation on receiver sensitivity and receiver optimal threshold for the converted RZ-BPSK probe is also carried out. It was found that although the desired XPM-induced n phase shift can be achieved by launching both the RZ-OOK pump and the probe along the same birefringent axis of the fiber, the phase shift degrades to π/3 if the SOP of the RZ-OOK pump unpredictably switches to the other axis of the fiber, resulting in a large receiver sensitivity penalty fluctuation of 14 dB. By contrast, launching the probe at 45° relative to the birefringent axes can reduce the polarization-dependent receiver sensitivity penalty fluctuation to about 2 dB as the SOP of the RZ-OOK pump is swept over the Poincaré sphere. These conclusions are in good agreement with recently published experimental results.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
(070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: January 6, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 23, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: February 24, 2009
Published: March 3, 2009

C. C. Wei, W. Astar, J. Chen, Y. J. Chen, and G. M. Carter, "Theoretical investigation of polarizationinsensitive data format conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK in a nonlinear birefringent fiber," Opt. Express 17, 4306-4316 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Mishina, A. Maruta, S. Mitani, T. Miyahara, K. Ishida, K. Shimizu, T. Hatta, K. Motoshima, and K.-I. Kitayama, "NRZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation-format conversion using SOA-MZI wavelength converter," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3751-3758 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, "Performance of DBPSK in a 5 × 10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766-2768 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. W. Astar and G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver," Electron. Lett. 44, 369-370 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. Cishuo Yan, Yikai Su, Lilin Yi, Lufeng Leng, Xiangqing Tian, Xinyu Vu, and Yue Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368-2370 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Jiang, He Wen, Liuyan Han, Yili Guo, and Hanyi Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1985-1987 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Mishina, S. Kitagawa, and A. Maruta, "All-optical modulation format conversion from on-off-keying to multiple-level phase-shift-keying based on nonlinearity in optical fiber," Opt. Express 15, 8444-8453 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-15-13-8444. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Astar, C.-C. Wei, Y.-J. Chen, J. Chen, and G. M. Carter, "Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF," Opt. Express 16, 12039-12049 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-12039. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Kumar, A. Selvarajan, and G. Anand, "Nonlinear propagation of two optical pulses of two different frequencies in birefringent fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 810-817 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2001), Chap. 7.
  11. D. Marcuse, "Derivation of analytical expressions for the bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1819-1826 (1990). [CrossRef]
  12. E. W. Weisstein, "Noncentral Chi-Squared Distribution." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NoncentralChi-SquaredDistribution.html.
  13. Q1. S. Stein, "Unified analysis of certain coherent and noncoherent binary communications systems," IEEE.Trans. Info. Theory 10, 43-51 (1964). [CrossRef]
  14. K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication System (Springer, 2005), Appendix 3.A.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (704 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1726 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited