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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 10 — May. 10, 2010
  • pp: 10257–10269

Real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging system with a 32 × 32 0.13μm CMOS low dark-count single-photon avalanche diode array

Day-Uei Li, Jochen Arlt, Justin Richardson, Richard Walker, Alex Buts, David Stoppa, Edoardo Charbon, and Robert Henderson  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 10, pp. 10257-10269 (2010)

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A compact real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system based on an array of low dark count 0.13μm CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) is demonstrated. Fast background-insensitive fluorescence lifetime determination is achieved by use of a recently proposed algorithm called ‘Integration for Extraction Method’ (IEM) [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1190 (2008)]. Here, IEM is modified for a wider resolvability range and implemented on the FPGA of the new SPAD array imager. We experimentally demonstrate that the dynamic range and accuracy of calculated lifetimes of this new camera is suitable for widefield FLIM applications by imaging a variety of test samples, including various standard fluorophores covering a lifetime range from 1.6ns to 16ns, microfluidic mixing of fluorophore solutions, and living fungal spores of Neurospora Crassa. The calculated lifetimes are in a good agreement with literature values. Real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging is also achieved, by performing parallel 32 × 16 lifetime calculations, realizing a compact and low-cost FLIM camera and promising for bigger detector arrays.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(030.5260) Coherence and statistical optics : Photon counting
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(170.2520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Fluorescence microscopy
(170.3650) Medical optics and biotechnology : Lifetime-based sensing
(170.6920) Medical optics and biotechnology : Time-resolved imaging
(040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Original Manuscript: February 12, 2010
Revised Manuscript: March 22, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 22, 2010
Published: May 3, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Day-Uei Li, Jochen Arlt, Justin Richardson, Richard Walker, Alex Buts, David Stoppa, Edoardo Charbon, and Robert Henderson, "Real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging system with a 32 × 32 0.13μm CMOS low dark-count single-photon avalanche diode array," Opt. Express 18, 10257-10269 (2010)

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