OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 12 — Jun. 7, 2010
  • pp: 12606–12614

Planar high-numerical-aperture low-loss focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings

Fanglu Lu, Forrest G. Sedgwick, Vadim Karagodsky, Christopher Chase, and Connie J. Chang-Hasnain  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 12, pp. 12606-12614 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.012606


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1015 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose planar, high numerical aperture (NA), low loss, focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings (HCGs). By designing the reflectance and the phase of non-periodic HCGs, both focusing reflectors and lenses can be constructed. Numerical aperture values as high as 0.81 and 0.96 are achieved for a reflector and lens with very low losses of 0.3 and 0.2 dB, respectively. The design algorithm is also shown to be readily extended to a 2D lens. Furthermore, HCG optics can simultaneously focus the reflected and transmitted waves, with important technological implications. HCG focusing optics are defined by one-step photolithography and thus can be readily integrated with many devices including VCSELs, saturable absorbers, telescopes, CCDs and solar cells.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: April 19, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 13, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 14, 2010
Published: May 27, 2010

Citation
Fanglu Lu, Forrest G. Sedgwick, Vadim Karagodsky, Christopher Chase, and Connie J. Chang-Hasnain, "Planar high-numerical-aperture low-loss focusing reflectors and lenses using subwavelength high contrast gratings," Opt. Express 18, 12606-12614 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-12-12606


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2007), Chap. 5. [PubMed]
  2. D. C. Shaver and D. C. Flanders, “X-Ray Zone Plates Fabricated Using Electron-Beam and X-Ray Lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(6), 1626 (1979). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Rastani, A. Marrakchi, S. F. Habiby, W. M. Hubbard, H. Gilchrist, and R. E. Nahory, “Binary phase Fresnel lenses for generation of two-dimensional beam arrays,” Appl. Opt. 30(11), 1347–1354 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Fujita, H. Nishihara, and J. Koyama, “Blazed gratings and Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Opt. Lett. 7(12), 578 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayashi, and H. Nishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29(34), 5120 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Shiono, M. Kitagawa, K. Setsune, and T. Mitsuyu, “Reflection micro-Fresnel lenses and their use in an integrated focus sensor,” Appl. Opt. 28, 15 (1989).
  7. T. Shiono and K. Setsune, “Blazed reflection micro-Fresnel lenses fabricated by electron-beam writing and dry development,” Opt. Lett. 15(1), 84 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 518–520 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, C. Chase, V. Karagodsky, M. Moewe, B. Pesala, F. G. Sedgwick, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “High-Index-Contrast Grating (HCG) and Its Applications in Optoelectronic Devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(5), 1485–1499 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. V. Karagodsky, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Analytical Solution and Design Guideline for Highly Reflective Subwavelength Gratings,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JTuA128.
  11. Y. Zhou, M. C. Y. Huang, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Large Fabrication Tolerance for VCSELs Using High-Contrast Grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 434–436 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71(7), 811–818 (1981). [CrossRef]
  13. Yu. V. Troitski, “The Energy Conservation Law for Optical Two-Port Devices,” Opt. Spectrosc. 92(4), 555–559 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited