OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 12 — Jun. 7, 2010
  • pp: 12727–12735

Measurements of nonlinear refractive index in scattering media

Prathyush Samineni, Zachary Perret, Warren S. Warren, and Martin C. Fischer  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 12, pp. 12727-12735 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3170 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have recently developed a spectral re-shaping technique to simultaneously measure nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption. In this technique, the information about the nonlinearities is encoded in the frequency domain, rather than in the spatial domain as in the conventional Z-scan method. Here we show that frequency encoding is much more robust with respect to scattering. We compare spectral re-shaping and Z-scan measurements in a highly scattering environment and show that reliable spectral re-shaping measurements can be performed even in a regime that precludes standard Z-scans.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: March 23, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 17, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 26, 2010
Published: May 28, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Prathyush Samineni, Zachary Perret, Warren S. Warren, and Martin C. Fischer, "Measurements of nonlinear refractive index in scattering media," Opt. Express 18, 12727-12735 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n(2) measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. VanStryland, and M. Sheik Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(8), 1324–1333 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. K. S. Bindra, S. M. Oak, and K. C. Rustagi, “Intensity dependence of Z-scan in semiconductor-doped glasses for separation of third and fifth order contributions in the below band gap region,” Opt. Commun. 168(1-4), 219–225 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Dispersion of Bound Electronic Nonlinear Refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991). [CrossRef]
  6. S. L. Gómez, F. L. S. Cuppo, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, T. Kosa, M. Muramatsu, and R. J. Horowicz, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive indices of micellar lyotropic liquid crystals with and without the ferrofluid doping,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 59(3), 3059–3063 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Rockwell, W. P. Roach, M. E. Rogers, M. W. Mayo, C. A. Toth, C. P. Cain, and G. D. Noojin, “Nonlinear refraction in vitreous humor,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1792–1794 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. S. Warren, M. C. Fischer, and T. Ye, “Cellular imaging - Novel nonlinear contrast improves deep-tissue microscopy,” Laser Focus World 43, 99–103 (2007).
  9. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Guo, P. P. Ho, H. Savage, D. Harris, P. Sacks, S. Schantz, F. Liu, N. Zhadin, and R. R. Alfano, “Second-harmonic tomography of tissues,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1323–1325 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2641–2643 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, J. Grichnik, L. Hong, J. D. Simon, and W. S. Warren, “Probing skin pigmentation changes with transient absorption imaging of eumelanin and pheomelanin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054036 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Isobe, S. Kataoka, R. Murase, W. Watanabe, T. Higashi, S. Kawakami, S. Matsunaga, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated parametric emission microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 786–793 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. C. Fischer, H. C. Liu, I. R. Piletic, Y. Escobedo-Lozoya, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation signatures of neuronal activity,” Opt. Lett. 33(3), 219–221 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. C. Fischer, T. Ye, G. Yurtsever, A. Miller, M. Ciocca, W. Wagner, and W. S. Warren, “Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation measurements with shaped femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1551–1553 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. C. Fischer, H. C. Liu, I. R. Piletic, and W. S. Warren, “Simultaneous self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption measurement by a spectral homodyne Z-scan method,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4192–4205 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, T. Ye, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, “Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons,” in Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE (SPIE, Bellingham WA, United States, 2007), 64421J.
  20. P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, “Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6(3), 251–293 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(6), 1009–1017 (1994). [CrossRef]
  22. I. Guedes, L. Misoguti, L. De Boni, and S. C. Zilio, “Heterodyne Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063112 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. J.-M. Ménard, M. Betz, I. Sigal, and H. M. van Driel, “Single-beam differential z-scan technique,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 2119–2122 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/10(4) wave-front distortion,” Opt. Lett. 19(5), 317–319 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Tsigaridas, M. Fakis, I. Polyzos, P. Persephonis, and V. Giannetas, “Z-scan technique through beam radius measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 76(1), 83–86 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. R. E. Bridges, G. L. Fischer, and R. W. Boyd, “Z-scan measurement technique for non-Gaussian beams and arbitrary sample thicknesses,” Opt. Lett. 20(17), 1821–1823 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. W. Hillegas, J. X. Tull, D. Goswami, D. Strickland, and W. S. Warren, “Femtosecond laser pulse shaping by use of microsecond radio-frequency pulses,” Opt. Lett. 19(10), 737–739 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited