OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 14 — Jul. 5, 2010
  • pp: 14366–14374

Focus grid generation by in-line holography

Jigang Wu, Lap Man Lee, and Changhuei Yang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 14, pp. 14366-14374 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (931 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a simple way to generate a wide-area high-resolution focus grid by in-line holography and study the factors that impacts its quality. In our holographic recording setup, the reference beam was the direct transmission of the incoming collimated laser beam through a mask coating with thin metal film, and the sample beam was the transmission of the laser through small apertures fabricated on the mask. The interference of the two beams was then recorded by a holographic plate positioned behind the mask. Compared with other recording schemes, the in-line holography scheme has many distinct advantages and is more suitable for generating a wide-area focus grid. We explored the dependence of diffraction quality, including reconstructed focus spot intensity and spot size, on different parameters for recording, such as optical density of the metal film, size of the apertures, and focal lengths. A wide-area focus grid (170 x 138 spots with area 5.1 mm x 4.1 mm) was recorded using the in-line holography scheme for a demonstration.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(090.2890) Holography : Holographic optical elements

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 5, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 27, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 10, 2010
Published: June 21, 2010

Jigang Wu, Lap Man Lee, and Changhuei Yang, "Focus grid generation by in-line holography," Opt. Express 18, 14366-14374 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Gräf, J. Rietdorf, and T. Zimmermann, “Live cell spinning disk microscopy,” Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 95, 57–75 (2005). [PubMed]
  2. J. Bewersdorf, R. Pick, and S. W. Hell, “Multifocal multiphoton microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 655–657 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Lundquist, C. F. Zhong, P. Zhao, A. B. Tomaney, P. S. Peluso, J. Dixon, B. Bettman, Y. Lacroix, D. P. Kwo, E. McCullough, M. Maxham, K. Hester, P. McNitt, D. M. Grey, C. Henriquez, M. Foquet, S. W. Turner, and D. Zaccarin, “Parallel confocal detection of single molecules in real time,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1026–1028 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Ho, A. V. Parwani, D. M. Jukic, Y. Yagi, L. Anthony, and J. R. Gilbertson, “Use of whole slide imaging in surgical pathology quality assurance: design and pilot validation studies,” Hum. Pathol. 37(3), 322–331 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Oheim, “High-throughput microscopy must re-invent the microscope rather than speed up its functions,” Br. J. Pharmacol. 152(1), 1–4 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Wu, X. Cui, G. Zheng, Y. M. Yang, L. M. Lee, and C. Yang, “A wide field-of-view microscope based on holographic focus grid illumination,” (accepted by Opt. Lett. ). [PubMed]
  7. F. Kalkum, S. Broch, T. Brands, and K. Buse, “Holographic phase conjugation through a sub-wavelength hole,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 637–645 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. W. Liu and D. Psaltis, “Pixel size limit in holographic memories,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1340–1342 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. J. Barton, “Removing multiple scattering and twin images from holographic images,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67(22), 3106–3109 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Moreno, J. F. Roman, and J. R. Salgueiro, “High efficiency diffractive lenses: deduction of kinoform profile,” Am. J. Phys. 65(6), 556–562 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. M. H. Horman and H. H. M. Chau, “Zone plate theory based on holography,” Appl. Opt. 6(2), 317–322 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, 3rd edition, 2004), Chap. 9.
  15. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. K. Richter and F. P. Carlson, “Holographically generated lens,” Appl. Opt. 13(12), 2924–2930 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-halide recording materials for holography and their processing (Springer, 2nd edition, 1995), Chap. 5.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited