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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 15 — Jul. 19, 2010
  • pp: 15907–15916

Effect of dielectric constant tuning on a photonic cavity frequency and Q-factor

Michael Shlafman, Igal Bayn, and Joseph Salzman  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 15, pp. 15907-15916 (2010)

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For practical applications in quantum electrodynamics, it has been proposed to produce frequency tuning or Q-switching by dynamically changing the dielectric constant around a nano-cavity. Local changes in the dielectric constant of a photonic cavity with finite-lifetime, may affect not only the frequency of electromagnetic cavity modes but also their quality-factor (Q). Thus, it is important to have prediction capability regarding the combined effect of these changes. Here perturbation theory, usually applied to eigenmodes with real eigenvalues, is formulated in the complex domain, in which the eigen-frequency imaginary part is related to the Q-factor. Normalizable leaky modes, and bi-orthogonality in a finite volume are the basis for such a formulation. We introduce such capabilities by presenting semi-analytical expressions of first order perturbation analysis for a 3D cavity with radiation losses. The obtained results are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
(000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
(050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
(050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

Original Manuscript: March 16, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 6, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 10, 2010
Published: July 13, 2010

Michael Shlafman, Igal Bayn, and Joseph Salzman, "Effect of dielectric constant tuning on a photonic cavity frequency and Q-factor," Opt. Express 18, 15907-15916 (2010)

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  23. The Normalizable Leaky Modes may be regarded as a 3D extension of the quasi-normal modes [17–20].
  24. Discontinuity of the dielectric constant at surface S is followed by discontinuity of the electric field, therefore by integrating over S we actually mean integrating over a different surface which is outward remote from S but infinitesimally close to it where both the dielectric constant and the electric field are continuous.
  25. Bilinear Form is a function B:V×V→F mapping from two vectors of the vector space V into the scalar field F. Every inner product is by itself a bilinear map, but for example while every inner product is conjugate symmetric by definition, bilinear map doesn't have to be, and in the presented case it is just symmetric.
  26. We define 〈ψ|Θ^′|φ〉≡〈ψ|Θ^′φ〉, where Θ^′φ is the matrix by vector multiplication [see Eqs. (3) and (6)].
  27. Meep. http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep (13.10.2009), free finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation software package developed at MIT to model electromagnetic systems.
  28. The absolute peak value in the computational region of Re{EIII} is roughly 23 times larger than that of Im{EIII}. Similarly the absolute peak value in the computational region of Re{wIII} is roughly 172 times larger than that of Im{wIII}.
  29. Tests for applicability to high Q systems suggested by an anonymous reviewer are gratefully acknowledged. Though the simulation resolution was decreased to 20 point per unit cell because of computational time considerations, the relative errors did not increased.
  30. In the examples studied here, even under a very large material modulation of ε′r = 0.15 (ε′r/εr0≅0.01) at every desired point in the volume V (including air holes), the possible values of Wr and Wi are limited to −0.422⋅10−3≤Wr≤2.341 and 9.615⋅10−3≤Wi≤0.0322 respectively.
  31. If, upon cavity design and mode calculation, Wrand Wi receive the adequate magnitude and sign, desired response in Δω or ΔQ can be obtained. This will be shown elsewhere (M. Shlafman and J. Salzman unpublished).

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