OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 16 — Aug. 2, 2010
  • pp: 16520–16525

Laser light condensate: experimental demonstration of light-mode condensation in actively mode locked laser

Rafi Weill, Boris Levit, Alexander Bekker, Omri Gat, and Baruch Fischer  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 16, pp. 16520-16525 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3325 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have recently predicted (R. Weill, B. Fischer and O. Gat, Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 173901, 2010) condensation of light in actively mode locked lasers when the laser power increases, or the noise, that takes the role of temperature, decreases. The condensate is characterized by strong light pulses due to the dominance of the lowest eigenmode (“ground state”) power. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, light mode condensation transition in an actively mode-locked fiber laser. Following the theoretical prediction, the condensation is obtained for modulations that have a power law dependence on time with exponents smaller than 2. The laser light system is strictly one dimensional, a special opportunity in experimental physics. We also discuss experimental schemes for condensation in two- and three-dimensional laser systems.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(000.6590) General : Statistical mechanics
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: April 28, 2010
Revised Manuscript: July 5, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 5, 2010
Published: July 22, 2010

Rafi Weill, Boris Levit, Alexander Bekker, Omri Gat, and Baruch Fischer, "Laser light condensate: experimental demonstration of light-mode condensation in actively mode locked laser," Opt. Express 18, 16520-16525 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. A. Cornell and C. E. Wieman, “The Bose-Einstein condensate,” Sci. Am. 278(3), 40–45 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Leggett, “Bose-Einstein condensation in the alkali gases: some fundamental concepts,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 73(2), 307–356 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. V. Bagnato and D. Kleppner, “Bose-Einstein condensation in low-dimensional traps,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7439–7441 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Connaughton, C. Josserand, A. Picozzi, Y. Pomeau, and S. Rica, “Condensation of classical nonlinear waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263901 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Conti, M. Leonetti, A. Fratalocchi, L. Angelani, and G. Ruocco, “Condensation in disordered lasers: theory, 3D+1 simulations, and experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(14), 143901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Gordon and B. Fischer, “Phase transition theory of many-mode ordering and pulse formation in lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(10), 103901 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. Gat, A. Gordon, and B. Fischer, “Light-mode locking: a new class of solvable statistical physics systems,” N. J. Phys. 7, 151 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Weill, A. Rosen, A. Gordon, O. Gat, and B. Fischer, “Critical behavior of light in mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 013903 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Gordon, B. Vodonos, V. Smulakovski, and B. Fischer, “Melting and freezing of light pulses and modes in mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3418–3424 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Vodonos, R. Weill, A. Gordon, A. Bekker, V. Smulakovsky, O. Gat, and B. Fischer, “Formation and annihilation of laser light pulse quanta in a thermodynamic-like pathway,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(15), 153901 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Rosen, R. Weill, B. Levit, V. Smulakovsky, A. Bekker, and B. Fischer, “Experimental observation of critical phenomena in a laser light system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(1), 013905 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Gordon and B. Fischer, “Statistical-mechanics theory of active mode locking with noise,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 1022–1024 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. F. Rana, R. J. Ram, and H. A. Haus, “Quantum noise of actively mode-locked lasers with dispersion and amplitude/phase modulation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(1), 41–56 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Weill, B. Fischer, and O. Gat, “Light-mode condensation in actively-mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(17), 173901 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited