OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 16 — Aug. 2, 2010
  • pp: 17075–17088

Improved single channel backpropagation for intra-channel fiber nonlinearity compensation in long-haul optical communication systems

Liang B. Du and Arthur J. Lowery  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 16, pp. 17075-17088 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1212 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Backpropagation has been shown to be the most effective method for compensating intra-channel fiber nonlinearity in long-haul optical communications systems. However, effective compensation is computationally expensive, as it requires numerous steps and possibly increased sampling rates compared with the baud rate. This makes backpropagation difficult to implement in real-time. We propose: (i) low-pass filtering the compensation signal (the intensity waveform used to calculate the nonlinearity compensation) in each backpropagation step and (ii) optimizing the position of the nonlinear section in each step. With numerical simulations, we show that these modifications to backpropagation improve system performance, reducing the number of backpropagation steps and reducing the oversampling for a given system performance. Using our ‘filtered backpropagation’, with four backpropagation steps operating at the same sampling rate as that required for linear equalizers, the Q at the optimal launch power was improved by 2 dB and 1.6 dB for single wavelength CO-OFDM and CO-QPSK systems, respectively, in a 3200 km (40 × 80km) single-mode fiber link, with no optical dispersion compensation. With previously proposed backpropagation methods, 40 steps were required to achieve an equivalent performance. A doubling in the sampling rate of the OFDM system was also required. We estimate this is a reduction in computational complexity by a factor of around ten.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: March 12, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 28, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 17, 2010
Published: July 28, 2010

Liang B. Du and Arthur J. Lowery, "Improved single channel backpropagation for intra-channel fiber nonlinearity compensation in long-haul optical communication systems," Opt. Express 18, 17075-17088 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, and H. Tanaka, “121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000 km of SSMF,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 177–188 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Yang, Y. Tang, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation of 107-Gb/s high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 168–176 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. C. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 64–72 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kikuchi, M. Fukase, and S.-Y. Kim, “Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase noise in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical QPSK transmission system using the homodyne receiver with digital signal processing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Anaheim, California, 2007), p. OTuA2.
  5. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, and G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 880–888 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O. Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 403–405 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Lowery, “Fiber nonlinearity pre- and post-compensation for long-haul optical links using OFDM,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12965–12970 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-12965 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-841 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. J. Lowery, “Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in optical links that use OFDM for dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(19), 1556–1558 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. L. B. Du, and A. J. Lowery, “Fiber nonlinearity compensation for CO-OFDM systems with periodic dispersion maps,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, San Diego, California, 2009), p. OTuO1.
  12. L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Improved nonlinearity precompensation for long-haul high-data-rate transmission using coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19920–19925 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19920 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Paré, A. Villeneuve, P. A. Bélanger, and N. J. Doran, “Compensating for dispersion and the nonlinear Kerr effect without phase conjugation,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 459–461 (1996), http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-21-7-459 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, C. Ohshima, H. Nakashima, Z. Tao, and J. C. Rasmussen, “112 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using a novel nonlinear compensator in digital coherent receiver,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, San Diego, California, 2009), p. OThR6.
  15. G. Charlet, M. Salsi, P. Tran, M. Bertolini, H. Mardoyan, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, and S. Bigo, “72x100Gb/s transmission over transoceanic distance, using large effective area fiber, hybrid raman-erbium amplification and coherent detection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2009), p. PDPB6.
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, 1989).
  17. G. Goldfarb, M. G. Taylor, and G. Li, “Experimental demonstration of fiber impairment compensation using the split-step finite-impulse-response filtering method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(22), 1887–1889 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. K. Roberts, M. O'Sullivan, K. T. Wu, H. Sun, A. Awadalla, D. J. Krause, and C. Laperle, “Performance of dual-polarization QPSK for optical transport systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(16), 3546–3559 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, E. Torrengo, and P. Poggiolini, “Impact of interchannel nonlinearities on a split-step intrachannel nonlinear equalizer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 673–675 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang, “Theoretical and experimental study on PMD-supported transmission using polarization diversity in coherent optical OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 15(16), 9936–9947 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-16-9936 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. F. Yaman and G. Li, “Nonlinear impairment compensation for polarization-division multiplexed WDM transmission using digital backward propagation,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(2), 144–152 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “Practical XPM compensation method for coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 320–322 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. L. Li, Z. Tao, L. Liu, W. Yan, S. Oda, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “XPM tolerant adaptive carrier phase recovery for coherent receiver based on phase noise statistics monitoring,” in Proc. European Conference on Optical Communications (2009), p. P3.16.
  24. T. K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(3), 249–260 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Nazarathy, J. Khurgin, R. Weidenfeld, Y. Meiman, P. Cho, R. Noe, I. Shpantzer, and V. Karagodsky, “Phased-array cancellation of nonlinear FWM in coherent OFDM dispersive multi-span links,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15777–15810 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15777 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited