OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 18 — Aug. 30, 2010
  • pp: 18519–18524

Spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy using a photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source

Yazan N. Billeh, Mengyang Liu, and Takashi Buma  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 18, pp. 18519-18524 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (859 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) provides high resolution images with excellent image contrast based on optical absorption. The compact size and high repetition rate of pulsed microchip lasers make them attractive sources for PAM. However, their fixed wavelength output precludes their use in spectroscopic PAM. We are developing a tunable optical source based on a microchip laser that is suitable for spectroscopic PAM. Pulses from a 6.6 kHz repetition rate Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip laser are sent through a photonic crystal fiber with a zero dispersion wavelength at 1040 nm. The highly nonlinear optical propagation produces a supercontinuum spectrum spanning 500 – 1300 nm. A tunable band pass filter selects the desired wavelength band from the supercontinuum. Our PAM system employs optical focusing and a 25 MHz spherically focused detection transducer. En-face imaging experiments were performed at seven different wavelengths from 575 to 875 nm. A simple discriminant analysis of the multiwavelength photoacoustic data produces images that clearly distinguish the different absorbing regions of ink phantoms. These results suggest the potential of this compact tunable source for spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(170.5120) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photoacoustic imaging
(110.4234) Imaging systems : Multispectral and hyperspectral imaging
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 17, 2010
Revised Manuscript: July 31, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 9, 2010
Published: August 16, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 13 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Yazan N. Billeh, Mengyang Liu, and Takashi Buma, "Spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy using a photonic crystal fiber supercontinuum source," Opt. Express 18, 18519-18524 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. H. Song, E. W. Stein, J. A. Margenthaler, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. L.-S. Su, B. Wang, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of coronary artery stents,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19894–19901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Kim, S.-W. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, M. O’Donnell, A. Agarwal, N. A. Kotov, M. F. Denny, and M. J. Kaplan, “Photoacoustic imaging of early inflammatory response using gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223901 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. C. Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, “Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54(8), 1642–1647 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. T. Cox, J. G. Laufer, and P. C. Beard, “The challenges for quantitative photoacoustic imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 717713 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. J.-T. Oh, M.-L. Li, H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34032 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Zayhowski, “Q-switched operation of microchip lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(8), 575–577 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Harrison, J. C. Ranasinghesagara, H. Lu, K. Mathewson, A. Walsh, and R. J. Zemp, “Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound biomicroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22041–22046 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Sethuraman, J. H. Amirian, S. H. Litovsky, R. W. Smalling, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Spectroscopic intravascular photoacoustic imaging to differentiate atherosclerotic plaques,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3362–3367 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. J. Allen and P. C. Beard, “Photoacoustic characterization of vascular tissue at NIR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770A (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in air-silica microstructured fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(4), 765–771 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. D. H. Reitze, A. M. Weiner, and D. E. Leaird, “Shaping of wide bandwidth 20 femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(11), 1260–1262 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. Johnson, and D. W. Wichern, Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Prentice Hall (2002).
  17. Q. Liu, K. Chen, M. Martin, A. Wintenberg, R. Lenarduzzi, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Development of a synchronous fluorescence imaging system and data analysis methods,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12583–12594 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. A. Nelson, J. C. McCann, A. W. Loepke, J. Wu, B. Ben Dor, and C. D. Kurth, “Development and validation of a multiwavelength spatial domain near-infrared oximeter to detect cerebral hypoxia-ischemia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(6), 064022 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. K. J. Jeon, S.-J. Kim, K. K. Park, J.-W. Kim, and G. Yoon, “Noninvasive total hemoglobin measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(1), 45–50 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited