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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 20 — Sep. 27, 2010
  • pp: 20968–20978

Advanced mask aligner lithography: new illumination system

Reinhard Voelkel, Uwe Vogler, Andreas Bich, Pascal Pernet, Kenneth J. Weible, Michael Hornung, Ralph Zoberbier, Elmar Cullmann, Lorenz Stuerzebecher, Torsten Harzendorf, and Uwe D. Zeitner  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 20, pp. 20968-20978 (2010)

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A new illumination system for mask aligner lithography is presented. The illumination system uses two subsequent microlens-based Köhler integrators. The second Köhler integrator is located in the Fourier plane of the first. The new illumination system uncouples the illumination light from the light source and provides excellent uniformity of the light irradiance and the angular spectrum. Spatial filtering allows to freely shape the angular spectrum to minimize diffraction effects in contact and proximity lithography. Telecentric illumination and ability to precisely control the illumination light allows to introduce resolution enhancement technologies (RET) like customized illumination, optical proximity correction (OPC) and source-mask optimization (SMO) in mask aligner lithography.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics
(220.2945) Optical design and fabrication : Illumination design

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: August 11, 2010
Revised Manuscript: September 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: September 13, 2010
Published: September 17, 2010

Reinhard Voelkel, Uwe Vogler, Andreas Bich, Pascal Pernet, Kenneth J. Weible, Michael Hornung, Ralph Zoberbier, Elmar Cullmann, Lorenz Stuerzebecher, Torsten Harzendorf, and Uwe D. Zeitner, "Advanced mask aligner lithography: new illumination system," Opt. Express 18, 20968-20978 (2010)

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  1. R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bich, K. J. Weible, M. Eisner, M. Hornung, P. Kaiser, R. Zoberbier, E. Cullmann, „Illumination system for a microlithographic contact and proximity exposure apparatus“, EP 09169158.4, (2009).
  2. U. Vogler, “Optimierung des Beleuchtungssystems für Proximitylithographie in Mask Alignern”, Diploma Thesis, Technische Universität Ilmenau, (2009).
  3. J. Wangler, H. Siekmann, K. J. Weible, R. Scharnweber, M. Deguenther, M. Layh, A. Scholz, U. Spengler, R. Voelkel, „Illumination system for a microlithographic projection exposure apparatus“, EP20070703454, (2007)
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  6. R. Voelkel, and K. J. Weible, “Laser beam homogenizing: limitations and constraints”, Proc. SPIE 7102, (2008)
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  11. In 1963 Karl Süss developed the first Mask Aligner for production of transistors at Siemens in Munich, Germany. Reference: SUSS MicroTec company history, www.suss.com .
  12. Lens arrangement for Köhler integrator was developed in 1978 for mask aligners from Karl SUSS KG, now SUSS MicroTec Lithography GmbH, Garching, Germany, and is referred as “A-Optics”.
  13. D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, “The manufacture of microlenses by melting a photoresist on a base layer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1(8), 759–766 (1990). [CrossRef]
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  15. B. Meliorisz, S. Partel, T. Schnattinger, T. Fuhner, A. Erdmann, and P. Hudek, “Investigation of high-resolution contact printing”, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 85, Issues 5–6, Proceedings of the Micro- and Nano-Engineering 2007 Conference - MNE 2007, May-June 2008, Pages 744–748, ISSN 0167–9317, (2007).
  16. R. Voelkel, H. P. Herzig, Ph. Nussbaum, P. Blattner, R. Dändliker, E. Cullmann, and W. B. Hugle, “Microlens lithography and smart masks,” in Micro-Nano-Engineering 96, Microelectronic Engineering (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997).
  17. E. Abbe, “Beiträge zur Theorie des Mikroskops und der Mikroskopischen Wahrnehmung,” Archiv Mikrosc. Anat. 9(1), 413–418 (1873). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Harzendorf, L. Stuerzebecher, U. Vogler, U. D. Zeitner, and R. Voelkel, “Half-tone proximity lithography” in Micro-Optics 2010, edited by Hugo Thienpont, Peter Van Daele, Jürgen Mohr, Hans Zappe, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7716 (SPIE, Bellingham, WA 2010) 77160Y (2010).
  19. K. Motzek, A. Bich, A. Erdmann, M. Hornung, M. Hennemeyer, B. Meliorisz, U. Hofmann, N. Unal, R. Voelkel, S. Partel, and P. Hudek, “Optimization of illumination pupils and mask structures for proximity printing”, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 87, Issues 5–8, The 35th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Engineering (MNE), May-August 2010, Pages 1164–1167, ISSN 0167–9317 (2010).
  20. L. Stuerzebecher, T. Harzendorf, U. Vogler, U. Zeitner, and R. Voelkel, “Advanced mask aligner lithography: fabrication of periodic patterns using pinhole array mask and Talbot effect,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19485–19494 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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