OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 22 — Oct. 25, 2010
  • pp: 23095–23103

Fast and optimal broad-band Stokes/Mueller polarimeter design by the use of a genetic algorithm

Paul Anton Letnes, Ingar Stian Nerbø, Lars Martin Sandvik Aas, Pål Gunnar Ellingsen, and Morten Kildemo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 22, pp. 23095-23103 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.023095


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (871 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A fast multichannel Stokes/Mueller polarimeter with no mechanically moving parts has been designed to have close to optimal performance from 430 – 2000 nm by applying a genetic algorithm. Stokes (Mueller) polarimeters are characterized by their ability to analyze the full Stokes (Mueller) vector (matrix) of the incident light (sample). This ability is characterized by the condition number, κ, which directly influences the measurement noise in polarimetric measurements. Due to the spectral dependence of the retardance in birefringent materials, it is not trivial to design a polarimeter using dispersive components. We present here both a method to do this optimization using a genetic algorithm, as well as simulation results. Our results include fast, broad-band polarimeter designs for spectrographic use, based on 2 and 3 Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals, whose material properties are taken from measured values. The results promise to reduce the measurement noise significantly over previous designs, up to a factor of 4.5 for a Mueller polarimeter, in addition to extending the spectral range.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.2130) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Ellipsometry and polarimetry
(120.4570) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical design of instruments
(300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: September 9, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 5, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 5, 2010
Published: October 18, 2010

Citation
Paul Anton Letnes, Ingar Stian Nerbø, Lars Martin S. Aas, Pål Gunnar Ellingsen, and Morten Kildemo, "Fast and optimal broad-band Stokes/Mueller polarimeter design by the use of a genetic algorithm," Opt. Express 18, 23095-23103 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-22-23095


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. M. Gandorfer, "Ferroelectric retarders as an alternative to piezoelastic modulators for use in solar Stokes vector polarimetry," Opt. Eng. 38, 1402-1408 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. P. Collins, R. Redfern, and B. Sheehan, "Design, construction and calibration of the Galway astronomical Stokes polarimeter (GASP)," in AIP Conference Proceedings, D. Phelan, O. Ryan, and A. Shearer, eds. (AIP, Edinburgh (Scotland), 2008), vol. 984, p. 241. [CrossRef]
  3. A. Alvarez-Herrero, V. Martínez-Pillet, J. del Toro Iniesta, and V. Domingo, "The IMaX polarimeter for the solar telescope SUNRISE of the NASA long duration balloon program," in Proceedings of API’09, E. Garcia-Caurel, ed. (EPJ Web of Conferences, 2010), vol. 5, p. 05002.
  4. J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, "Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection," in Polarization Analysis, Measurement, and Remote Sensing III, D. B. Chenault, M. J. Duggin, W. G. Egan, and D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE 4133, 202-213 (2000).
  5. M. H. Smith, P. D. Burke, A. Lompado, E. A. Tanner, and L. W. Hillman, "Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry in dermatology," in Biomedical Diagnostic, Guidance, and Surgical-Assist Systems II, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest, and D. A. Benaron, eds., Proc. SPIE 3911, 210-216 (2000).
  6. R. N. Weinreb, S. Shakiba, and L. Zangwill, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995). [PubMed]
  7. M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, R. Ossikovski, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Licitra, "Characterization of grating structures by Mueller polarimetry in presence of strong depolarization due to finite spot size," Opt. Commun. 282, 735-741 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. I. S. Nerbø, S. Le Roy, M. Foldyna, M. Kildemo, and E. Søndergård, "Characterization of inclined GaSb nanopillars by Mueller matrix ellipsometry," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014307 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Jin, M. Kasahara, B. Gelloz, and K. Takizawa, "Polarization properties of scattered light from macrorough surfaces," Opt. Lett. 35, 595-597 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. A. Germer, "Polarized light scattering by microroughness and small defects in dielectric layers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1279-1288 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Germer, "Measurement of roughness of two interfaces of a dielectric film by scattering ellipsometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 349-352 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, I. Nerbø, and M. Lindgren, "Well-conditioned multiple laser Mueller matrix ellipsometer," Opt. Eng. 47, 073604 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Tyo, "Noise equalization in Stokes parameter images obtained by use of variable-retardance polarimeters," Opt. Lett. 25, 1198-1200 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. D. S. Sabatke, M. R. Descour, E. L. Dereniak, W. C. Sweatt, S. A. Kemme, and G. S. Phipps, "Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 25, 802-804 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. A. Azzam, and A. De, "Optimal beam splitters for the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 955-958 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. A. Azzam, "Photopolarimetric measurement of the Mueller matrix by Fourier analysis of a single detected signal," Opt. Lett. 2, 148 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. M. Bueno, "Polarimetry using liquid-crystal variable retarders: theory and calibration," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 216-222 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. E. Garcia-Caurel, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, "Spectroscopic Mueller polarimeter based on liquid crystal devices," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 120-123 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Ladstein, M. Kildemo, G. Svendsen, I. Nerbø, and F. Stabo-Eeg, "Characterisation of liquid crystals for broadband optimal design of Mueller matrix ellipsometers," in Liquid Crystals and Applications in Optics, M. Glogarova, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and M. Copic, eds. Proc. SPIE 6587, 65870D (2007).
  20. L. M. S. Aas, P. G. Ellingsen, M. Kildemo, and M. Lindgren, "Dynamic Response of a fast near infra-red Mueller matrix ellipsometer," J. Mod. Opt. (accepted). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Cattelan, E. Garcia-Caurel, A. De Martino, and B. Drevillon, "Device and method for taking spectroscopic polarimetric measurements in the visible and near-infrared ranges," Patent application 2937732, France (2010).
  22. J. H. Holland, "Genetic algorithms," Sci. Am. 267, 44-50 (1992).
  23. D. Floreano, and C. Mattiussi, Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence: Theories, Methods, and Technologies (The MIT Press, 2008).
  24. A. Kudla, "Application of the genetic algorithms in spectroscopic ellipsometry," Thin Solid Films 455-456, 804-808 (2004). [CrossRef]
  25. G. Cormier, and R. Boudreau, "Genetic algorithm for ellipsometric data inversion of absorbing layers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 129-134 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. V. R. Fernandes, C. M. S. Vicente, N. Wada, P. S. André, and R. A. S. Ferreira, "Multi-objective genetic algorithm applied to spectroscopic ellipsometry of organic-inorganic hybrid planar waveguides," Opt. Express 18, 16580-16586 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. Stabo-Eeg, M. Kildemo, E. Garcia-Caurel, and M. Lindgren, "Design and characterization of achromatic 132◦ retarders in CaF2 and fused silica," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 2203-2214 (2008). [CrossRef]
  28. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University Press, 2007).
  29. E. Compain, S. Poirier, and B. Drevillon, "General and self-consistent method for the calibration of polarization modulators, polarimeters, and Mueller-matrix ellipsometers," Appl. Opt. 38, 3490-3502 (1999). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Ladstein, F. Stabo-Eeg, E. Garcia-Caurel, and M. Kildemo, "Fast near-infra-red spectroscopic Mueller matrix ellipsometer based on ferroelectric liquid crystal retarders," Phys. Status Solidi C 5, 1097-1100 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited