OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 25 — Dec. 6, 2010
  • pp: 26461–26468

Square lattice photonic crystal surface mode lasers

Tsan-Wen Lu, Shao-Ping Lu, Li-Hsun Chiu, and Po-Tsung Lee  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 26461-26468 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1631 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this report, we propose a square lattice photonic crystal hetero-slab-edge microcavity design. In numerical simulations, three surface modes in this microcavity are investigated and optimized by tuning the slab-edge termination τ and gradual mirror layer. High simulated quality (Q) factor of 2.3 × 105 and small mode volume of 0.105 μm3 are obtained from microcavity with τ = 0.80. In experiments, we obtain and identify different surface modes lasing. The surface mode in the second photonic band gap shows a very-low threshold of 140 μW and high Q factor of 5,500, which could be an avenue to low-threshold optical lasers and highly sensitive sensor applications with efficient light-matter interactions.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(140.3945) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavities
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: September 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 27, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 22, 2010
Published: December 2, 2010

Tsan-Wen Lu, Shao-Ping Lu, Li-Hsun Chiu, and Po-Tsung Lee, "Square lattice photonic crystal surface mode lasers," Opt. Express 18, 26461-26468 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media, (Wiley, New York, 2005).
  2. R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Electromagnetic Bloch waves at the surface of a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(19), 10961–10964 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Observation of surface photons on periodic dielectric arrays,” Opt. Lett. 18(7), 528–530 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Ishizaki and S. Noda, “Manipulation of photons at the surface of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Nature 460(7253), 367–370 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Ṡmigaj, “Model of light collimation by photonic crystal surface modes,” Phys. Rev. B 75(20), 205430 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Off-axis directional beaming via photonic crystal surface modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092114 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. H. C. Chen, K. K. Tsia, and A. W. Poon, “Surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs with a flat dielectric margin,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7368–7377 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Yu. A. Vlasov, N. Moll, and S. J. McNab, “Mode mixing in asymmetric double-trench photonic crystal waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4538–4544 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, “Direct observation of surface mode excitation and slow light coupling in photonic crystal waveguides,” Nano Lett. 7(8), 2341–2345 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Xiao and M. Qiu, “Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(5), 1225–1229 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, S. Xiao, M. Qiu, M. Swillo, and U. Andersson, “Optical filter based on two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-mode cavity in amorphous silicon-on-silica structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041108 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Wang, Y. Song, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “High-Q photonic crystal surface-mode cavities on crystalline SOI structures,” Opt. Commun. 283(11), 2461–2464 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. J. K. Yang, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. B. Kim, “Slab-edge modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(16), 3016–3018 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. T. W. Lu, Y. H. Hsiao, W. D. Ho, and P. T. Lee, “Photonic crystal hetero-slab-edge microcavity with high quality factor surface mode for index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141110 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. V. N. Konopsky and E. V. Alieva, “A biosensor based on photonic crystal surface waves with an independent registration of the liquid refractive index,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(5), 1212–1216 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. T. W. Lu, Y. H. Hsiao, W. D. Ho, and P. T. Lee, “High-index sensitivity of surface mode in photonic crystal hetero-slab-edge microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1452–1454 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Design of Photonic Crystal Nanocavity with Q-factor of ~109,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1532–1539 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton Univ. Press, 2008).
  19. S. H. Kim, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Vertical beaming of wavelength-scale photonic crystal resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 73(23), 235117 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited