OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 3 — Feb. 1, 2010
  • pp: 2753–2759

Conical refraction Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser

Amin Abdolvand, Keith G. Wilcox, Todor K. Kalkandjiev, and Edik U. Rafailov  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 2753-2759 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (234 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In 1832 Hamilton predicted conical refraction, concluding that if a beam propagates along an optic axis of a biaxial crystal, a hollow cone of light will emerge. Nearly two centuries on, cascade conical refraction involving multiple crystals has not been investigated. We empirically investigate a unique two-crystal configuration, and use this to demonstrate an ultra-efficient conical refraction Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser providing multi-watt output with excellent beam quality independent of resonator design with a slope efficiency close to the theoretical maximum, offering a new route for power and brightness-scaling in solid-state bulk lasers.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(260.0260) Physical optics : Physical optics
(260.1180) Physical optics : Crystal optics

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: October 8, 2009
Revised Manuscript: December 23, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: December 23, 2009
Published: January 26, 2010

Amin Abdolvand, Keith G. Wilcox, Todor K. Kalkandjiev, and Edik U. Rafailov, "Conical refraction Nd:KGd(WO4)2 laser," Opt. Express 18, 2753-2759 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. R. Hamilton, “Third supplement to an essay on the theory of systems of rays,” Trans. R. Irish Acad. 17, 1–144 (1833).
  2. H. Lloyd, “On the phenomenon presented by light in its passage along the axis of biaxial crystals,” Trans. R. Irish Acad. 17, 145–158 (1833).
  3. M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and J. L. Lunney, “Conical diffraction: observations and theory,” Proc. R Soc. A 462(2070), 1629–1642 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. M. V. Berry, “Conical diffraction asymptotics: fine structure of Poggendorff rings and axial spike,” J. Opt. A 6, 289–300 (2004).
  5. C. V. Raman, V. S. Rajagopalan, and T. M. K. Nedungadi, “Conical refraction in naphthalene crystals,” Proc. Indian Ins. Sci. A 14, 221–227 (1941).
  6. C. V. Raman and T. M. K. Nedungadi, “Optical images formed by conical refraction,” Nature 149(3785), 552–553 (1942). [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Poggendorff, “Ueber die konische Refraction,” Pogg. Ann. 124(11), 461–462 (1839). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Potter, “An examination of the phaenomena of conical refraction in biaxial crystals,” Philos. Mag. 18, 343–353 (1841).
  9. W. Haidinger, “Die konische Refraction am Diopsid, nebst Bemerkungen ber einige Erscheinungen der konischen Refraction an Arragonit,” Ann. Phys. Chem. 172(11), 469–487 (1855). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Melmore, “Conical refraction,” Nature 150(3804), 382–383 (1942). [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Portigal and E. Burstein, “Effect of optical activity or Faraday rotation on internal conical refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62(7), 859–864 (1972). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Belafhal, “Theoretical intensity distribution of internal conical refraction,” Opt. Commun. 178(4-6), 257–265 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Belskii and A. P. Khapalyuk, “Internal conical refraction of bounded light beams in biaxial crystals,” Opt Spectrosc (USSR) 44, 436–439 (1978).
  14. A. M. Belsky and M. A. Stepanov, “Internal conical refraction of coherent light beams,” Opt. Commun. 167(1-6), 1–5 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. A. M. Belsky and M. A. Stepanov, “Internal conical refraction of light beams in biaxial gyrotropic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 204(1-6), 1–6 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, “Chiral conical diffraction,” J. Opt. A 8, 363–372 (2006).
  17. M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, “Conical diffraction complexified: dichroism and the transition to double refraction,” J. Opt. A 8, 1043–1051 (2006).
  18. M. V. Berry and M. R. Jeffrey, “Conical diffraction: Hamilton’s diabolical point at the heart of crystal optics,” Prog. Opt. 50, 13–50 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. M. V. Berry, M. R. Jeffrey, and M. Mansuripur, “Orbital and spin angular momentum in conical diffraction,” J. Opt. A 7, 685–690 (2005).
  20. N. Bloembergen and H. Shih, “Conical refraction in nonlinear optics,” Opt. Commun. 1(2), 70–72 (1969). [CrossRef]
  21. J. P. F`eve, B. Boulanger, and G. Marnier, “Experimental study of internal and external conical refraction in ktp,” Opt. Commun. 105, 243–252 (1994). [CrossRef]
  22. M. R. Jeffrey, “The spun cusp complexified: complex ray focusing in chiral conical diffraction,” J. Opt. A 9, 634–641 (2007).
  23. O. N. Naida, “Tangential conical refraction in a three-dimensional inhomogeneous weakly anisotropic medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 239–245 (1979).
  24. B. S. Perkal’skis and Y. P. Mikhailichenko, “Demonstration of conical refraction,” Izv Vyss Uch Zav Fiz 8, 103–105 (1979).
  25. J. Hellström, H. Henricsson, V. Pasiskevicius, U. Bünting, and D. Haussmann, “Polarization-tunable Yb:KGW laser based on internal conical refraction,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2783–2785 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. K. Kalkandjiev, and M. A. Bursukova, “Conical refraction: an experimental introduction,” Proc. SPIE 6994, 69940B1–69940B10 (2008).
  27. C. F. Phelan, D. P. O’Dwyer, Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, and J. G. Lunney, “Conical diffraction and Bessel beam formation with a high optical quality biaxial crystal,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12891–12899 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12891 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Abdolvand, K. G. Wilcox, T. K. Kalkandjiev, and E. U. Rfailov, “Solid-state conical refraction laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Application Systemes Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), Post-deadline paper CPDB1. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2009-CPDB1
  29. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 5th ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1999), pp. 198–205.
  30. O. Svelto, Principles of lasers, 4th ed. (Plenum Press, 1998), pp. 249–272.
  31. J. G. O’Hara, “The prediction and discovery of conical refraction by William Rowan Hamilton and Humphrey Lloyd (1832-1833),” Proc. R. Ir. Acad. [B] 82A, 231–257 (1982).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited