OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 5 — Mar. 1, 2010
  • pp: 4986–4999

CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector

Solomon Assefa, Fengnian Xia, Stephen W. Bedell, Ying Zhang, Teya Topuria, Philip M. Rice, and Yurii A. Vlasov  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 5, pp. 4986-4999 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (5545 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A compact waveguide-integrated Germanium-on-insulator (GOI) photodetector with 10 ± 2fF capacitance and operating at 40Gbps is demonstrated. Monolithic integration of thin single-crystalline Ge into front-end CMOS stack was achieved by rapid melt growth during source-drain implant activation anneal.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(130.1750) Integrated optics : Components
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: December 23, 2009
Revised Manuscript: January 30, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: January 30, 2010
Published: February 25, 2010

Solomon Assefa, Fengnian Xia, Stephen W. Bedell, Ying Zhang, Teya Topuria, Philip M. Rice, and Yurii A. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 18, 4986-4999 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Masini, S. Sahni, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, and C. Gunn, “Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 196572 (2008).
  2. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7901–7906 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. T. Pomerene, C. Hill, M. Jaso, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, A. White, and D. M. Gill, “Waveguide-Integrated Ge p-i-n Photodetectors on SOI Platform,” in Proc. 3rd IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 173–175 (2006)
  7. J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, S. M. F. Tan, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-voltage high-speed (18GHz/1V) evanescent-coupled thin-film-Ge lateral PIN photodetectors integrated on Si waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1485–1487 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2563–2565 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Miyao, K. Toko, T. Tanaka, and T. Sadoh, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by rapid-melting-growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 02215–1 – 02215–3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Miyao, T. Tanaka, K. Toko, and M. Tanaka, “Giant Ge-on-Insulator formation by Si-Ge mixing-triggered liquid-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 045503–1 – 045503–3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-Integrated 40GHz germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMR4 (2009).
  12. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-Integrated high-speed germanium waveguide photodetector for on-chip optical interconnects,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics (CLEO), CTuV1 (2009).
  13. G. Dehlinger, S. McNab, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Waveguide photodetector,” US patent US7515793, filed February 2006.
  14. S. Assefa, S. Bedell, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Optoelectronic Device with Germanium Photodetector,” pending US patent 11/925170, filed October 2007.
  15. S. Assefa, J. V. Campenhout, J. O. Chu, W. M. J. Green, Y. H. Kim, M. M. Frank, G. G. Totir, Y. A. Vlasov, and Y. Zhang, “Suspended germanium photodetector for silicon waveguide,” pending US patent 12/191687, filed August 2008.
  16. http://www.photond.com/products/fimmwave.htm
  17. http://www.ansoft.com/products/em/maxwell/
  18. L. Colace, G. Masini, and G. Assanto, “Ge-on-Si approaches to the detection of near-infrared light,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1843–1852 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3mm square Si waveguides to singlemode fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S Itabashi, and H Morita, “Microphotonic devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Assefa, C. Jahnes, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS compatible integrated dielectric optical waveguide coupler and fabrication,” pending US patent 12/164580, filed July2008.
  24. S. M. Sze, D. J. Coleman, and A. Loya, “Current transport in metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structures,” Solid-State Electron. 14(12), 1209–1218 (1971). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Kobayashi, A. Kinoshita, K. C. Saraswat, H. S. Philip Wong, and Y. Nishi, “Fermi-level depinning in metal/Ge Schottky junction for metal source/drain Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor application,” J. Appl. Phys . 105, 023702–1 – 023702–6 (2009).
  26. C. O. Chui, A. K. Okyay, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effective dark current suppression with asymmetric MSM photodetectors in Group IV semiconductors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1585–1587 (2003). [CrossRef]
  27. K. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G. Lo, and D. Kwong, “High-performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel Silicon-Carbon (Si:C) Schottky barrier enhancement layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 754–756 (2008). [CrossRef]
  28. S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Select. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. T. Tsuchiya, K. Goto, M. Sakuraba, T. Matsuura, and J. Murota, “Drain leakage current and instability of drain current in Si/Si1-xGex MOSFETs,” Thin Solid Films 369(1-2), 379–382 (2000). [CrossRef]
  30. S. M. Sze, and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New Jersey, 2007), Chap. 3.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited