OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 6 — Mar. 15, 2010
  • pp: 6137–6148

Calculating model of light transmission efficiency of diffusers attached to a lighting cavity

Ching-Cherng Sun, Wei-Ting Chien, Ivan Moreno, Chih-To Hsieh, Mo-Cha Lin, Shu-Li Hsiao, and Xuan-Hao Lee  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 6, pp. 6137-6148 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (486 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A lighting cavity is a reflecting box with light sources inside. Its exit side is covered with a diffuser plate to mix and distribute light, which addresses a key issue of luminaires, display backlights, and other illumination systems. We derive a simple but precise formula for the optical efficiency of diffuser plates attached to a light cavity. We overcome the complexity of the scattering theory and the difficulty of the multiple calculations involved, by carrying out the calculation with a single ray of light that statistically represents all the scattered rays. We constructed and tested several optical cavities using light-emitting diodes, bulk-scattering diffusers, white scatter sheets, and silver coatings. All measurements are in good agreement with predictions from our optical model.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(080.2710) Geometric optics : Inhomogeneous optical media
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(080.4295) Geometric optics : Nonimaging optical systems
(080.4298) Geometric optics : Nonimaging optics

Original Manuscript: December 24, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 13, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 5, 2010
Published: March 11, 2010

Virtual Issues
Focus Issue: Solar Concentrators (2010) Optics Express

Ching-Cherng Sun, Wei-Ting Chien, Ivan Moreno, Chih-To Hsieh, Mo-Cha Lin, Shu-Li Hsiao, and Xuan-Hao Lee, "Calculating model of light transmission efficiency of diffusers attached to a lighting cavity," Opt. Express 18, 6137-6148 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. J. Vos, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(6), 363–370 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” J. Light Vis. Env. 30(2), 95–103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Wheatley, G. J. Benoit, J. E. Anderson, R. W. Biernath, D. G. Freier, T. R. Hoffend, C. D. Hoyle, T. T. Liu, J. D. Lu, M. A. Meis, V. V. Savvateev, C. R. Schardt, M. E. Sousa, M. F. Weber, and T. J. Nevitt, “Efficient LED light distribution cavities using low loss, angle-selective interference transflectors,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10612–10622 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Travis, T. Large, N. Emerton, and S. Bathiche, “Collimated light from a waveguide for a display backlight,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19714–19719 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Moreno, “Creating a desired lighting pattern with an LED array,” Proc. SPIE 7058, 705811 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. C. C. Sun, I. Moreno, S. H. Chung, W. T. Chien, C. T. Hsieh, and T. H. Yang, “Brightness management in a direct LED backlight for LCD TVs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(4), 519 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Trentacoste, W. Heidrich, L. Whitehead, H. Seetzen, and G. Ward, “Photometric image processing for high dynamic range displays,” J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent. 18(5), 439–451 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. H. F. Chen, T. H. Ha, J. H. Sung, H. R. Kim, and B. H. Han, “Evaluation of LCD local-dimming-backlight system,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(1), 57 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Gebauer, P. Benoit, P. Knoll, and M. Neiger, “P-9: Ray Tracing Tool for Developing LCD-Backlights” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers–May 2000–Volume 31, Issue 1, pp. 558-561
  10. C. H. Tien and C. H. Hung, “An iterative model of diffuse illumination from bidirectional photometric data,” Opt. Express 17(2), 723–732 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Voigt, I. A. Hagendoorn, and E. W. M. van der Ham, “Compact large-area uniform colour-selectable calibration light source,” Metrologia 46(4), S243–S247 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Nieto-Vesperinas, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, A. J. Sant, and J. C. Dainty, “Light transmission from a randomly rough dielectric diffuser: theoretical and experimental results,” Opt. Lett. 15(22), 1261–1263 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Manninen, P. Kärhä, and E. Ikonen, “Determining the irradiance signal from an asymmetric source with directional detectors: application to calibrations of radiometers with diffusers,” Appl. Opt. 47(26), 4714–4722 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Manninen, “Characterization of diffusers and light-emitting diodes using radiometric measurements and mathematical modeling,” Doctoral Dissertation Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland (2008).
  15. B. Chevalier, M. G. Hutchins, A. Maccari, F. Olive, H. Oversloot, W. Platzer, P. Polato, A. Roos, J. L. J. Rosenfeld, T. Squire, and K. Yoshimura, “Solar energy transmittance of translucent samples: A comparison between large and small integrating sphere measurements,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 54(1-4), 197–202 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. I. Moreno, M. Avendaño-Alejo, and R. I. Tzonchev, “Designing light-emitting diode arrays for uniform near-field irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 45(10), 2265–2272 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Labsphere, Inc., A Guide to Integrating Sphere Theory and Applications, at http://www.labsphere.com/
  18. R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  19. D. Terr, “Weighted Mean” From MathWorld-A Wolfram Web Resource, created by Eric W. Weisstein. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/WeightedMean.html
  20. C. C. Sun, W. T. Chien, I. Moreno, C. C. Hsieh, and Y. C. Lo, “Analysis of the far-field region of LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13918–13927 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I. Moreno and C. C. Sun, “Modeling the radiation pattern of LEDs,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1808–1819 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited