OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 8 — Apr. 12, 2010
  • pp: 7820–7826

Focal modulation using rotating phase filters

Pedro J. Valle, Vidal F. Canales, and Manuel P. Cagigal  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 8, pp. 7820-7826 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (704 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a simple method of refocusing optical systems that is based on the use of two identical phase filters. These filters are divided in annuli and each annulus is divided into sectors with a particular phase value. A controlled focus displacement is achieved by rotating one filter with respect to the other. This displacement is related with the filter parameters. Transverse responses are studied as a function of filters relative position. Furthermore, the experimental set up shows that theoretical prediction fit well with experimental results. The main advantage of this system is the ease of fabrication so that it could be useful in different applications requiring small size, light weight or thin systems, like mobile phone cameras, microscopy tomography, and others.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(100.2980) Image processing : Image enhancement
(120.2440) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Filters

ToC Category:
Image Processing

Original Manuscript: November 5, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 15, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 9, 2010
Published: March 31, 2010

Pedro J. Valle, Vidal F. Canales, and Manuel P. Cagigal, "Focal modulation using rotating phase filters," Opt. Express 18, 7820-7826 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. N. A. Riza, “Axial scanning confocal microscopy with no moving parts,” Opt. Photon. News 19(12), 33 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. E. J. Botcherby, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “An optical technique for remote focusing in microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 880–887 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. López and A. H. Hirsa, “Fast focusing using a pinned-contact oscillating liquid lens,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 610–613 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, “Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels,” Nature 442(7102), 551–554 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Graham-Rowe, “Liquid lenses make a splash,” Nat. Photonics sample, 2–4 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ren, S. Xu, Y. J. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Adaptive-focus lenses,” Opt. Photon. News 19(10), 42–47 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. L. W. Alvarez, “Two-element variable-power spherical lens,” U.S. patent 3,305,294 (1967).
  9. A. W. Lohmann and D. P. Paris, “Variable fresnel zone pattern,” Appl. Opt. 6(9), 1567–1570 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Bara, Z. Jaroszewicz, A. Kolodziejczyk, and V. Moreno, “Determination of basic grids for subtractive moire patterns,” Appl. Opt. 30(10), 1258–1262 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Bernet and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Adjustable refractive power from diffractive moiré elements,” Appl. Opt. 47(21), 3722–3730 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. P. Cagigal, J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and P. J. Valle, “Analytical design of superresolving phase filters,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 249–253 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. ITME Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited