OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 1 — Jan. 3, 2011
  • pp: 141–146

Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene

J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Yun-Shik Lee  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 1, pp. 141-146 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1219 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging and spectroscopy of a 15 × 15-mm2 single-layer graphene film on Si using broadband THz pulses. The THz images clearly map out the THz carrier dynamics of the graphene-on-Si sample, allowing us to measure sheet conductivity with sub-mm resolution without fabricating electrodes. The THz carrier dynamics are dominated by intraband transitions and the THz-induced electron motion is characterized by a flat spectral response. A theoretical analysis based on the Fresnel coefficients for a metallic thin film shows that the local sheet conductivity varies across the sample from σs = 1.7 × 10−3 to 2.4 × 10−3 Ω−1 (sheet resistance, ρs = 420 - 590 Ω/sq).

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 10, 2010
Revised Manuscript: December 14, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: December 15, 2010
Published: December 21, 2010

J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Yun-Shik Lee, "Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene," Opt. Express 19, 141-146 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. H. Castro Neto, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Zhang, J. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Geim, “Graphene: Status and Prospect,” Science 324(5934), 1530–1534 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Brumfiel, “Graphene gets ready for the big time,” Nature 458(7237), 390–391 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Dragoman and D. Dragoman, “Graphene-based quantum electronics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(6), 165–214 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Li, X. Wang, L. Zhang, S. Lee, and H. Dai, “Chemically Derived, Ultrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors,” Science 319(5867), 1229–1232 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. A. Ponomarenko, F. Schedin, M. I. Katsnelson, R. Yang, E. W. Hill, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Chaotic Dirac Billiard in Graphene Quantum Dots,” Science 320(5874), 356–358 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y.-M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 422–426 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Wang, D. Nezich, J. Kong, and T. Palacios, “Graphene frequency multipliers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 547–549 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. N. L. Rangel and J. M. Seminario, “Graphene terahertz generators for molecular circuits and sensors,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(51), 13699–13705 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Ryzhii, “Terahertz plasma waves in gated graphene heterostructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(35), L923–L925 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Berger, Z. Song, X. Li, X. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. Li, J. Hass, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, “Electronic confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene,” Science 312(5777), 1191–1196 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Lee, S. Bae, H. Jang, S. Jang, S.-E. Zhu, S. H. Sim, Y. I. Song, B. H. Hong, and J.-H. Ahn, “Wafer-Scale Synthesis and Transfer of Graphene Films,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 490–493 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C.-H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born–Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro‐optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Horng, C.-F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude Conductivity of Dirac Fermions in Graphene,” arXiv:1007.4623v1.
  24. Y.-W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of Scattering Rate and Minimum Conductivity in Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(24), 246803 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited