OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 12 — Jun. 6, 2011
  • pp: 11680–11690

Evolution of Photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing

A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 12, pp. 11680-11690 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.011680


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1035 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We have studied the generation mechanisms of two different radiation-induced point defects, the Ge(1) and Ge(2) centers, in a germanosilicate fiber and in its original preform. The samples have been investigated before and after X-ray irradiation using the confocal microscopy luminescence and the electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. Our experimental results show the higher radiation sensitivity of the fiber as compared to the perform and suggest a relation between Ge(1) and Ge(2) generation. To explain our data we have used different models, finding that the destruction probability of the Ge(1) and Ge(2) defects is larger in fiber than in preform, whereas the generation one is similar. Finally we found that the higher radiation sensitivity of the fiber at low doses is essentially related to the presence of germanium lone pair center generated by the drawing.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(160.2220) Materials : Defect-center materials
(300.2140) Spectroscopy : Emission
(300.6370) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, microwave
(350.5610) Other areas of optics : Radiation

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: February 3, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 13, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 15, 2011
Published: June 1, 2011

Citation
A. Alessi, S. Girard, M. Cannas, S. Agnello, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, "Evolution of Photo-induced defects in Ge-doped fiber/preform: influence of the drawing," Opt. Express 19, 11680-11690 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-12-11680


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. G. Pacchioni, L. Skuja, and D. L. Griscom, Defects in SiO2 and related dielectrics: Science and Technology, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2000).
  2. C. K. F. Ho, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, “Optical functions of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 films determined by multi-sample and multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Express 13(3), 1049–1054 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Le Parc, B. Champagnon, C. Levelut, V. Martinez, L. David, A. Faivre, I. Flammer, J. L. Hazemann, and J. P. Simon, “Density and concentration fluctuations in SiO2–GeO2 optical fiber glass investigated by small angle x-ray scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094917 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. A. B. Devine, J. P. Duraud, and E. Dooryhée, Structure and Imperfections in Amorphous and Crystalline Silicon Dioxide (Wiley, New York, 2000).
  5. J. W. Fleming, “Dispersion in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,” Appl. Opt. 23(24), 4486–4493 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(10), 647–649 (1978). [CrossRef]
  7. U. Österberg and W. Margulis, “Dye laser pumped by Nd:YAG laser pulses frequency doubled in a glass optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 11(8), 516–518 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Fujimaki, T. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, and Y. Ohki, “Paramagnetic centres induced in Ge-doped SiO2 glass with UV irradiation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11(12), 2589–2594 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. H. G. Limberger, C. Ban, R. P. Salathé, S. A. Slattery, and D. N. Nikogosyan, “Absence of UV-induced stress in Bragg gratings recorded by high-intensity 264 nm laser pulses in a hydrogenated standard telecom fiber,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5610–5615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. G. Limberger, P.-Y. Fonjallaz, R. P. Salathé, and F. Cochet, “Compaction- and photoelastic-induced index changes in fiber Bragg gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(22), 3069–3071 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, and J. F. Bayon, “The UV-induced refractive index grating in Ge:SiO2 preforms: additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change in index,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(7), 1842–1856 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Awazu, H. Kawazoe, and M. Yamane, “Simultaneous generation of optical absorption bands 5.14 and 0.452 eV in 9 SiO2:GeO2 glasses heated under H2 atmosphere,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(6), 2713–2718 (1990). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold coordinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149(1-2), 77–95 (1992). [CrossRef]
  14. V. B. Neustruev, “Colour centres in germanosilicate glass and optical fibres,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(35), 6901–6936 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel., “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974). [CrossRef]
  16. E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, “Color center in glass optical fiber waveguides,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 61, 319–331 (1986). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol, and Y. Ohki, “Structural changes induced by KrF excimer laser photons in H2-loaded Ge-doped SiO2 glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4682–4687 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, F. Morazzoni, A. Paleari, and R. Scotti, “Optical transitions of paramagnetic Ge sites created by x-ray irradiation of oxygen-defect-free Ge-doped SiO2 by the sol-gel method,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2429–2435 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. S. Russell, and D. N. Payne, “Photoinduced absorption change in germanosilicate preforms: evidence for the color-center model of photosensitivity,” Appl. Opt. 34(18), 3436–3440 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Alessi, S. Agnello, S. Grandi, A. Parlato, and F. M. Gelardi, “Refractive index change dependence on Ge(1) defects in γ-irradiated Ge-doped silica,” Phys. Rev. B 80(1), 014103 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. T. E. Tsai, M. A. Saifi, E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and U. Osterberg, “Correlation of defect centers with second-harmonic generation in Ge-doped and Ge-P-doped silica-core single-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14(18), 1023–1025 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. L. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published), doi:.
  23. E. J. Friebele, G. H. Sigel, and D. L. Griscom, “Drawing-induced defect centers in a fused silica core fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28(9), 516–518 (1976). [CrossRef]
  24. G. Origlio, M. Cannas, S. Girard, R. Boscaino, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Influence of the drawing process on the defect generation in multistep-index germanium-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2282–2284 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, G. Origlio, C. Marcandella, A. Boukenter, N. Richard, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, M. Cannas, J. Bisutti, J.-P. Meunier, and R. Boscaino, “Radiation effects on Silica-Based preforms and optical fibers—I: Experimental study with canonical samples,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(6), 3473–3482 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Alessi, S. Girard, C. Marcandella, M. Cannas, A. Boukenter, and Y. Ouerdane, “Raman investigation of the drawing effects on Ge-doped fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(1), 24–27 (2011). [CrossRef]
  27. S. Agnello, R. Boscaino, M. Cannas, and F. M. Gelardi, “Instantaneous diffusion effect on spin-echo decay: Experimental investigation by spectral selective excitation,” Phys. Rev. B 64(17), 174423 (2001). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Alessi, S. Agnello, F. M. Gelardi, G. Messina, and M. Carpanese, “Influence of Ge doping level on the EPR signal of Ge(1), Ge(2) and E'Ge defects in Ge-doped silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids (to be published), doi:.
  29. The difference in positioning the bulk samples (preform and reference sample) and the fiber inside the microwave cavity is the main error source.
  30. G. Origlio, S. Girard, M. Cannas, Y. Ouerdane, R. Boscaino, and A. Boukenter, “Paramagnetic germanium-related centers induced by energetic radiation in optical fibers and preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18-21), 1054–1056 (2009). [CrossRef]
  31. M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner, and K. Awazu, “Correlation between oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrF excimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 246(1-2), 39–45 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited