OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 14 — Jul. 4, 2011
  • pp: 13291–13305

Structural considerations on multistopband mesoporous silicon rugate filters prepared for gas sensing purposes

Tero Jalkanen, Jarno Salonen, Vicente Torres-Costa, Kazuhiro Fukami, Tetsuo Sakka, and Yukio H. Ogata  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 14, pp. 13291-13305 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1288 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Different designs for producing multiple stopband mesoporous silicon rugate filters via electrochemical anodization are compared. The effects of light absorption and dispersion to visible range filter design are investigated. Thermal oxidation is applied for passivating the chemically reactive porous silicon surface, and the response of the passivated structures to ethanol vapor is examined. Differences in gas sensing properties for the various designs are evaluated and possible reasons for the observed differences are discussed. Methods for sidelobe suppression in multipeak filters are discussed and demonstrated, and their effects in gas sensing applications are estimated.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.6040) Detectors : Silicon
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 12, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 5, 2011
Published: June 24, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Tero Jalkanen, Jarno Salonen, Vicente Torres-Costa, Kazuhiro Fukami, Tetsuo Sakka, and Yukio H. Ogata, "Structural considerations on multistopband mesoporous silicon rugate filters prepared for gas sensing purposes," Opt. Express 19, 13291-13305 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabricated by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046–1048 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Halimaoui, C. Oules, G. Bomchil, A. Bsiesy, F. Gaspard, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, and F. Muller, “Electroluminescence in the visible range during anodic oxidation of porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 304–306 (1991). [CrossRef]
  3. N. Koshida and H. Koyama, “Visible electroluminescence from porous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 347–349 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Pickering, M. I. J. Beale, D. J. Robbins, P. J. Pearson, and R. Greef, “Optical properties of porous silicon films,” Thin Solid Films 125, 157–163 (1985). [CrossRef]
  5. G. Vincent, “Optical properties of porous silicon superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2367–2369 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. M. G. Berger, C. Dieker, M. Thönissen, L. Vescan, H. Lüth, H. Münder, W. Theiss, M. Wernke, and P. Grosse, “Porosity superlattices: a new class of Si heterostructures,” J. Phys. D. 27, 1333–1336 (1994). [CrossRef]
  7. M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, and P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. V. Torres-Costa and R. J. Martín-Palma, “Application of nanostructured porous silicon in the field of optics. A review,” J. Mater. Sci. 45, 2823–2838 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. I. Schechter, M. Ben-Chorin, and A. Kux, “Gas sensing properties of porous silicon,” Anal. Chem. 67, 3727–3732 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. R. B. Bjorklund, S. Zangooie, and H. Arwin, “Color changes in thin porous silicon films caused by vapor exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3001–3003 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. St. J. Russell, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1781–1784 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Arroyo-Hernández, R. J. Martín-Palma, V. Torres-Costa, and J. M. Martínez-Duart, “Porous silicon optical filters for biosensing applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2457–2460 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. B. H. King, A. M. Ruminski, J. L. Snyder, and M. J. Sailor, “Optical-fiber-mounted porous silicon photonic crystals for sensing organic vapor breakthrough in activated carbon,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4530–4534 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. M. S. Salem, M. J. Sailor, K. Fukami, T. Sakka, and Y. H. Ogata, “Sensitivity of porous silicon rugate filters for chemical vapor detection,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 083516 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Jalkanen, V. Torres-Costa, J. Salonen, M. Bjorkqvist, E. Mäkilä, J. M. Martínez-Duart, and V.-P. Lehto, “Optical gas sensing properties of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express 17, 5446–5456 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-7-5446 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. M. Ruminski, M. M. Moore, and M. J. Sailor, “Humidity-compensating sensor for volatile organic compounds using stacked porous silicon photonic crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 3418–3426 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. B. G. Bovard, “Rugate filter theory: an overview,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5427–5442 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia, and M. J. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. S. O. Meade, M. S. Yoon, K. H. Ahn, and M. J. Sailor, “Porous silicon photonic crystals as encoded microcarriers,” Adv. Mater. 16, 1811–1814 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. E. Lorenzo, C. J. Oton, N. E. Capuj, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, Z. Gaburro, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon-based rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5415–5421 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Ishikura, M. Fujii, K. Nishida, S. Hayashi, and J. Diener, “Dichroic rugate filters based on birefringent porous silicon,” Opt. Express 16, 15531–15539 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15531 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. H. Southwell and R. L. Hall, “Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2949–2951 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. H. Southwell, “Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5091–5094 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. A. Abu-Safia, A. I. Al-Sharif, and I. O. Abu Aljarayesh, “Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using half-apodization,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4831–4835 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. Torres-Costa, R. J. Martín-Palma, and J. M. Martínez-Duart, “Optical constants of porous silicon films and multilayers determined by genetic algorithms,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4197–4203 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. M. S. Salem, M. J. Sailor, T. Sakka, and Y. H. Ogata, “Electrochemical preparation of a rugate filter in silicon and its deviation from the ideal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063503 (2007). [CrossRef]
  27. H. A. MacLeod, Thin-film Optical Filters , 2nd. ed. (Adam Hilger Ltd., 1986). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Kildemo, O. Hunderi, and B. Drévillon, “Approximation of reflection coefficients for rapid real-time calculation of inhomogenous films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 931–939 (1997). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Salonen, K. Saarinen, J. Peura, J. Viinikanoja, I. Salomaa, E. Laine, and J. Kauppinen, “Dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy of free-standing porous silicon films,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 486, 323–327, (1998). [CrossRef]
  30. T. Jalkanen, J. Tuura, E. Mäkilä, and J. Salonen, “Electro-optical porous silicon gas sensor with enhanced selectivity,” Sens. Actuators B 147, 100–104 (2010). [CrossRef]
  31. J. Salonen, V.-P. Lehto, and E. Laine, “Thermal oxidation of free-standing porous silicon films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 637–639 (1997). [CrossRef]
  32. W. H. Southwell, “Graded-index antireflection coatings,” Opt. Lett. 8, 584–586 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Ilias, T. Böcking, K. Kilian, P. J. Reece, J. Gooding, K. Gaus, and M. Gal, “Porous silicon based narrow line-width rugate filters,” Opt. Mater. 29, 619–622 (2007). [CrossRef]
  34. E. Delano, “Fourier synthesis of multilayer films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1529–1533 (1967). [CrossRef]
  35. B. G. Bovard, “Derivation of a matrix describing a rugate dielectric thin film,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1998–2005 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. B. G. Bovard, “Rugate filter design: the modified Fourier transform technique,” Appl. Opt. 29, 24–30 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited