OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 17 — Aug. 15, 2011
  • pp: 16223–16228

Magnetic imaging by x-ray holography using extended references

Thomas A. Duckworth, Feodor Ogrin, Sarnjeet S. Dhesi, Sean Langridge, Amy Whiteside, Thomas Moore, Guillaume Beutier, and Gerrit van der Laan  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 17, pp. 16223-16228 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (904 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate magnetic lensless imaging by Fourier transform holography using extended references. A narrow slit milled through an opaque gold mask is used as a holographic reference and magnetic contrast is obtained by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. We present images of magnetic domains in a Co/Pt multilayer thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. This technique holds advantages over standard Fourier transform holography, where small holes are used to define the reference beam. An increased intensity through the extended reference reduces the counting time to record the farfield diffraction pattern. Additionally it was found that manufacturing narrow slits is less technologically demanding than the same procedure for holes. We achieve a spatial resolution of ∼30 nm, which was found to be limited by the sample period of the chosen experimental setup.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(310.6870) Thin films : Thin films, other properties
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging
(090.1995) Holography : Digital holography
(260.6048) Physical optics : Soft x-rays

ToC Category:
X-ray Optics

Original Manuscript: June 7, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 25, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 27, 2011
Published: August 9, 2011

Thomas A. Duckworth, Feodor Ogrin, Sarnjeet S. Dhesi, Sean Langridge, Amy Whiteside, Thomas Moore, Guillaume Beutier, and Gerrit van der Laan, "Magnetic imaging by x-ray holography using extended references," Opt. Express 19, 16223-16228 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lörgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, “Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectroholography,” Nature 432, 885–888 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Tieg, R. Frömter, D. Stickler, S. Hankemeier, A. Kobs, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, and H. P. Oepen, “Imaging the in-plane magnetization in a Co microstructure by Fourier transform holography,” Opt. Express 18, 27251–27256 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. O. Hellwig, S. Eisebitt, W. Eberhardt, W. F. Schlotter, J. Lïning, and J. Stöhr, “Magnetic imaging with soft x-ray spectroholography,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 08H307 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Streit-Nierobisch, D. Stickler, C. Gutt, L.-M. Stadler, H. Stillrich, C. Menk, R. Frömter, C. Tieg, O. Leupold, H. P. Oepen, and G. Grübel, “Magnetic soft x-ray holography study of focused ion beam-patterned Co/Pt multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 083909 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Tieg, E. Jimenez, J. Camerero, J. Vogel, C. Arm, B. Rodmacq, E. Gautier, S. Auffert, B. Delaup, G. Gaudin, B. Dieny, and R. Miranda, “Imaging and quantifying perpendicular exchange biased systems by soft x-ray holography and spectroholography,” Appl. Phys Lett. 96, 072503 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Hopster and H. P. Oepen, Magnetic Microscopy of Nanostructures (Springer, 2005). [CrossRef]
  7. S. G. Podorov, K. M. Pavlov, and D. M. Paganin, “A non-iterative reconstruction method for direct and unambiguous coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 15, 9954–9962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation,” Opt. Express 15, 17592–17612 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Guizar Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Direct image reconstruction from a Fourier intensity pattern using HERALDO,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2668–2670 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Zhu, M. Guizar-Sicairos, B. Wu, A. Scherz, Y. Acremann, T. Tyliszczak, P. Fischer, N. Friedenberger, K. Ollefs, M. Farle, J. R. Fienup, and J. Stöhr, “High-resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 043901 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Gauthier, M. Guizar-Sicairos, X. Ge, W. Boutu, B. Carré, R. J. Fienup, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot femtosecond x-ray holography using extended references,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 093901 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. van der Laan and C. R. Physique, “Soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering of magnetic nanostructures,” 9, 570–584 (2008).
  13. G. Beutier, A. Marty, F. Livet, G. van der Laan, S. Stanescu, and P. Bencok, “Soft x-ray coherent scattering: instrument and methods at ESRF ID08,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. He, U. Weierstall, J. C. H. Spence, M. Howells, H. A. Padmore, S. Marchesini, and H. N. Chapman, “Use of extended and prepared reference objects in experimental Fourier transform x-ray holography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2454–2456 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Eisebitt, M. Lorgen, W. Eberhardt, J. Lüning, J. Stöhr, C. T. Rettner, O. Hellwig, E. E. Fullerton, and G. Denbeaux, “Polarization effects in coherent scattering from magnetic specimen: implications for x-ray holography, lensless imaging, and correlation spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 104419 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Scherz, W. F. Schlotter, K. Chen, R. Rick, J. Stöhr, J. Lüning, I. McNulty, Ch. Günther, F. Radu, W. Eberhardt, O. Hellwig, and S. Eisebitt, “Phase imaging of magnetic nanostructures using resonant soft x-ray holography,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 214410 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Hashimoto and Y. Ochiai, “Co/Pt and Co/Pd multilayers as magneto-optical recording materials,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 88, 211–226 (1990). [CrossRef]
  18. V. Baltz, A. Marty, B. Rodmacq, and B. Dieny, “Magnetic domain replication in interacting bilayers with out-of-plane anisotropy: Application to Co/Pt multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 014406 (2007) [CrossRef]
  19. A. Hubert and R. Schäfer, Magnetic Domains: The Analysis of Magnetic Microstructures (Springer Verlag, 1998).
  20. W. F. Schlotter, R. Rick, K. Chen, A. Scherz, J. Stöhr, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, C. Gunther, W. Eberhardt, O. Hellwig, and I. McNulty, “Multiple reference Fourier transform holography with soft x rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163112 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2758–2769 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited