OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 20 — Sep. 26, 2011
  • pp: 19323–19329

Smart three-dimensional imaging ladar using two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes

Hong Jin Kong, Tae Hoon Kim, Sung Eun Jo, and Min Seok Oh  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 20, pp. 19323-19329 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1123 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this paper, we propose a new method that is capable of obtaining a clear 3D image by the reduction of false alarms caused by noise in the stage of acquisition of raw time of flight (TOF) data. This method is implemented by intensity dividing a laser-return pulse into two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GmAPDs); an AND gate compares the arrival time of the electrical signals from the GmAPDs. Despite the fact that the energy of a laser-return pulse is decreased by half, the false alarm probability is drastically decreased because the noise distributed randomly in the time domain is filtered out. The experimental measurement is in agreement with the theoretical analysis. As a result, we can obtain a clear 3D image despite the high noise.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing

Original Manuscript: July 19, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 21, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 29, 2011
Published: September 20, 2011

Hong Jin Kong, Tae Hoon Kim, Sung Eun Jo, and Min Seok Oh, "Smart three-dimensional imaging ladar using two Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes," Opt. Express 19, 19323-19329 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. D. Richmond and S. C. Cain, Direct-Detection LADAR System, Tutorial Texts Vol. TT85 (SPIE Press, 2010), p. 1.
  2. M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Geinriches, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Moony, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O'Brien, B. E. Player, B. C. Willard, and J. J. Zayhowski, “Three-dimensional laser radar with geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13(2), 351–370 (2002).
  3. B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. H. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 13(2), 335–350 (2002).
  4. R. M. Marino and W. R. Davis, “Jigsaw: a foliage-penetrating 3D imaging laser radar system,” Lincoln Lab. J. 15(1), 23–36 (2005).
  5. J. S. Massa, A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, S. J. Fancey, and A. C. Walker, “Laser depth measurement based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Lett. 22(8), 543–545 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Massa, G. Buller, A. Walker, G. Smith, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. Wallace, “Optical design and evaluation of a three-dimensional imaging and ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1063–1070 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Cho, H. Anderson, R. Hatch, and P. Ramaswami, “Real-time 3D ladar imaging,” Lincoln Lab. J. 16, 147–164 (2006).
  9. M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, D. H. Hong, B. W. Kim, and D. J. Park, “Time-of-flight analysis of three-dimensional imaging laser radar using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(2), 026601 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. D. G. Fouche, “Detection and false-alarm probabilities for laser radars that use Geiger-mode detectors,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5388–5398 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. V. Gelalian, Laser Radar Systems (Artech House, Boston, 1992).
  12. M. S. Oh, H. J. Kong, T. H. Kim, K. H. Hong, and B. W. Kim, “Reduction of range walk error in direct detection laser radar using a Geiger mode avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 304–308 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited