OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 21 — Oct. 10, 2011
  • pp: 20531–20541

Efficient and low-noise single-photon avalanche photodiode for 1.244-GHz clocked quantum key distribution

Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, S. Yorozu, and A. Tomita  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 21, pp. 20531-20541 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1024 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An efficient and low-noise 1.244-GHz gating InGaAs single-photon avalanche photodiode (SAPD) was developed for a high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD) system. An afterpulsing probability of 0.61% and a dark count probability per gate of 0.71 ×10−6 were obtained at a detection efficiency of 10.9% for 1.55-µm photons. Furthermore, our SAPD successfully coped with high detection efficiency (≤ 25%) and quite low afterpulsing noise (≤ 3% for ≤ 25% efficiency) at the same time. Its potential was verified using the actual QKD setups installed over a metropolitan area network.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors
(270.5568) Quantum optics : Quantum cryptography

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

Original Manuscript: July 26, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 6, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 6, 2011
Published: October 3, 2011

Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, K. Yoshino, A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. Tajima, S. Yorozu, and A. Tomita, "Efficient and low-noise single-photon avalanche photodiode for 1.244-GHz clocked quantum key distribution," Opt. Express 19, 20531-20541 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum Cryptography: Public Key Distribution and Coin Tossing,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers Systems and Signal Processing, Bangalore India, 175–179, December (1984).
  2. V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. I. D. Quantique, http://www.idquantique.com/
  4. Q. Magi Technologies, Inc., http://www.magiqtech.com/MagiQ/Home.html
  5. QuintessenceLabs Pty Ltd, http://www.quintessencelabs.com/
  6. C. Elliott, A. Colvin, D. Pearson, O. Pikalo, J. Schlafer, and H. Yeh, “Current status of the DARPA Quantum Network,” in Quantum Information and Computation III, E. J. Donkor, A. R. Pirich, and H. E. Brandt, eds., Proc. SPIE 5815, 138–149 (2005); arXiv:quant-ph/0503058v2.
  7. M. Sasaki, M. Fujiwara, H. Ishizuka, W. Klaus, K. Wakui, M. Takeoka, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, A. Tanaka, K. Yoshino, Y. Nambu, S. Takahashi, A. Tajima, A. Tomita, T. Domeki, T. Hasegawa, Y. Sakai, H. Kobayashi, T. Asai, K. Shimizu, T. Tokura, T. Tsurumaru, M. Matsui, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, A. W. Sharpe, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, S. Uchikoga, M. Legré, S. Robyr, P. Trinkler, L. Monat, J. B. Page, G. Ribordy, A. Poppe, A. Allacher, O. Maurhart, T. Länger, M. Peev, and A. Zeilinger, “Field test of quantum key distribution in the Tokyo QKD Network,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10387–10409 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201104 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz decoy quantum key distribution with 1 Mbit/s secure key rate,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18790–18797 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. R. Dixon, Z. L. Yuan, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 161102 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. N. Namekata, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, Y. Tokura, and S. Inoue, “High-rate quantum key distribution over 100 km using ultra-low-noise, 2-GHz sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10632–10639 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. L. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “High speed single photon detection in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(4), 041114 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. N. Namekata, S. Adachi, and S. Inoue, “1.5 GHz single-photon detection at telecommunication wavelengths using sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6275–6282 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Zhang, R. Thew, C. Barreiro, and H. Zbinden, “Practical fast gate rate InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(9), 091103 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, J. F. Dynes, A. R. Dixon, and A. J. Shields, “Multi-gigahertz operation of photon counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Zhang, P. Eraerdsa, N. Walentaa, C. Barreiroa, R. Thewa, and H. Zbinden, “2.23GHz gating InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode for quantum key distribution,” in Proc. SPIE 7681 (SPIE press, U.S.A.,2010) 76810Z.
  17. N. Namekata and S. Inoue, “Ultra-low-noise high-speed single-photon detection using a sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode,” in Proc. SPIE 7945 (SPIE press,U.S.A., 2011) 79452K.
  18. A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5338–5340 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Multichannel SNSPD system with high detection efficiency at telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2133–2135 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Tanaka, M. Fujiwara, K. Yoshino, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, and A. Tajima, A Scalable Full Quantum Key Distribution System based on Colourless Interferometric Technique and Hardware Key Distillation,” Proc. ECOC 2011, paper Mo.1.B.3 (2011).
  21. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt. 35(12), 1956–1976 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230503 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Nambu, K. Yoshino, and A. Tomita, “Quantum encoder and decoder for practical quantum key distribution using a planar lightwave circuit,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(12), 1953–1970 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited