OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 23 — Nov. 7, 2011
  • pp: 22470–22479

Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source

Matthew D. Seaberg, Daniel E. Adams, Ethan L. Townsend, Daisy A. Raymondson, William F. Schlotter, Yanwei Liu, Carmen S. Menoni, Lu Rong, Chien-Chun Chen, Jianwei Miao, Henry C. Kapteyn, and Margaret M. Murnane  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 23, pp. 22470-22479 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.022470


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1150 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

New diffractive imaging techniques using coherent x-ray beams have made possible nanometer-scale resolution imaging by replacing the optics in a microscope with an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. However, to date very high resolution imaging (< 40nm) was limited to large-scale synchrotron facilities. Here, we present a significant advance in image resolution and capabilities for desktop soft x-ray microscopes that will enable widespread applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Using 13nm high harmonic beams, we demonstrate a record 22nm spatial resolution for any tabletop x-ray microscope. Finally, we show that unique information about the sample can be obtained by extracting 3-D information at very high numerical apertures.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(100.5070) Image processing : Phase retrieval
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(340.7460) X-ray optics : X-ray microscopy
(340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

ToC Category:
Frequency Conversion, Combs and Nonlinear Waveguides

History
Original Manuscript: August 5, 2011
Revised Manuscript: August 27, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: August 28, 2011
Published: October 25, 2011

Virtual Issues
Nonlinear Optics (2011) Optical Materials Express
Vol. 7, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Matthew D. Seaberg, Daniel E. Adams, Ethan L. Townsend, Daisy A. Raymondson, William F. Schlotter, Yanwei Liu, Carmen S. Menoni, Lu Rong, Chien-Chun Chen, Jianwei Miao, Henry C. Kapteyn, and Margaret M. Murnane, "Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source," Opt. Express 19, 22470-22479 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-23-22470


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol.21(11), 1369–1377 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. A. Klar, E. Engel, and S. W. Hell, “Breaking Abbe’s diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.64(6), 066613 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.97(15), 8206–8210 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Henriques, C. Griffiths, E. Hesper Rego, and M. M. Mhlanga, “PALM and STORM: unlocking live-cell super-resolution,” Biopolymers95(5), 322–331 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods3(10), 793–796 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Squier and M. Müller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: a review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.72(7), 2855 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B108(3), 827–840 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol.162(3), 380–386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. A. Larabell and M. A. Le Gros, “X-ray tomography generates 3-D reconstructions of the yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, at 60-nm resolution,” Mol. Biol. Cell15(3), 957–962 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(16), 7235–7239 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(21), 214101 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4(5), 394–398 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Song, H. Jiang, A. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5(4), 243–245 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Marvin Seibert, S. Boutet, M. Svenda, T. Ekeberg, F. R. N. C. Maia, M. J. Bogan, N. Tîmneanu, A. Barty, S. Hau-Riege, C. Caleman, M. Frank, H. Benner, J. Y. Lee, S. Marchesini, J. W. Shaevitz, D. A. Fletcher, S. Bajt, I. Andersson, H. N. Chapman, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging of biological cells,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.43(19), 194015 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys.2(12), 839–843 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, “High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(5), 1179–1200 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. N. Chapman, S. Bajt, A. Barty, W. H. Benner, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, A. Cavalleri, S. Duesterer, M. Frank, J. Hajdu, S. P. Hau-Riege, B. Iwan, S. Marchesini, A. Sakdinawat, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, M. M. Seibert, N. Timneanu, R. Truesch, and B. W. Woods, “Coherent imaging at FLASH,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.186, 012051 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Bertilson, O. von Hofsten, U. Vogt, A. Holmberg, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope,” Opt. Express17(13), 11057–11065 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Wieland, Ch. Spielmann, U. Kleineberg, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Heinzmann, and T. Wilhein, “Toward time-resolved soft X-ray microscopy using pulsed fs-high-harmonic radiation,” Ultramicroscopy102(2), 93–100 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, C. A. Brewer, F. Pedaci, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, Y. Liu, K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Wachulak, M. C. Marconi, D. T. Attwood, J. J. Rocca, and C. S. Menoni, “Microscopy of extreme ultraviolet lithography masks with 13.2 nm tabletop laser illumination,” Opt. Lett.34(3), 271–273 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1214–1216 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. W. Wachulak, A. Bartnik, and H. Fiedorowicz, “Sub-70 nm resolution tabletop microscopy at 13.8 nm using a compact laser-plasma EUV source,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2337–2339 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. L. Sandberg, D. A. Raymondson, C. La-O-Vorakiat, A. Paul, K. S. Raines, J. Miao, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and W. F. Schlotter, “Tabletop soft-x-ray Fourier transform holography with 50 nm resolution,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1618–1620 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Ravasio, D. Gauthier, F. R. Maia, M. Billon, J.-P. Caumes, D. Garzella, M. Géléoc, O. Gobert, J.-F. Hergott, A.-M. Pena, H. Perez, B. Carré, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, A. Madouri, D. Mailly, B. Schiedt, M. Fajardo, J. Gautier, P. Zeitoun, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. Hajdu, and H. Merdji, “Single-shot diffractive imaging with a table-top femtosecond soft x-ray laser-harmonics source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(2), 028104 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463(7278), 214–217 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. X. Huang, H. Miao, J. Steinbrener, J. Nelson, D. Shapiro, A. Stewart, J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express17(16), 13541–13553 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.29(12), 1357–1359 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science297(5580), 376–378 (2002). [PubMed]
  33. Y. Nagata, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, “Development of high-throughput, high-damage-threshold beam separator for 13 nm high-order harmonics,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1316–1318 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. W. Falcone and J. Bokor, “Dichroic beam splitter for extreme-ultraviolet and visible radiation,” Opt. Lett.8(1), 21–23 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. R. Fienup, “Reconstruction of an object from the modulus of its Fourier transform,” Opt. Lett.3(1), 27–29 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. V. Elser, “Random projections and the optimization of an algorithm for phase retrieval,” J. Phys. Math. Gen.36(12), 2995–3007 (2003). [CrossRef]
  37. D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Probl.21(1), 37–50 (2005). [CrossRef]
  38. S. Marchesini, H. He, H. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003). [CrossRef]
  39. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett.33(2), 156–158 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. J. Steinbrener, J. Nelson, X. Huang, S. Marchesini, D. Shapiro, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Opt. Express18(18), 18598–18614 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. R. L. Sandberg, C. Song, P. W. Wachulak, D. A. Raymondson, A. Paul, B. Amirbekian, E. Lee, A. E. Sakdinawat, C. La-O-Vorakiat, M. C. Marconi, C. S. Menoni, M. M. Murnane, J. J. Rocca, H. C. Kapteyn, and J. Miao, “High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(1), 24–27 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. B. Chen, R. Dilanian, S. Teichmann, B. Abbey, A. Peele, G. Williams, P. Hannaford, L. Van Dao, H. Quiney, and K. Nugent, “Multiple wavelength diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023809 (2009). [CrossRef]
  43. T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4(12), 822–832 (2010). [CrossRef]
  44. C. Wagner and N. Harned, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 24–26 (2010). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

Multimedia

Multimedia FilesRecommended Software
» Media 1: MOV (1640 KB)      QuickTime

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited