OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 24 — Nov. 21, 2011
  • pp: 23989–23996

Analysis of three-element zoom lens based on refractive variable-focus lenses

Antonin Miks and Jiri Novak  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 24, pp. 23989-23996 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (717 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Traditional optical systems with variable optical characteristics are composed of several optical elements that can be shifted with respect to each other mechanically. A motorized change of position of individual elements (or group of elements) then makes possible to achieve desired optical properties of such zoom lens systems. A disadvantage of such systems is the fact that individual elements of these optical systems have to move very precisely, which results in high requirements on mechanical construction of such optical systems. Our work is focused on a paraxial and aberration analysis of possible optical designs of three-element zoom lens systems based on variable-focus (tunable-focus) lenses with a variable focal length. First order chromatic aberrations of the variable-focus lenses are also described. Computer simulation examples are presented to show that such zoom lens systems without motorized movements of lenses appear to be promising for the next-generation of zoom lens design.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(080.3620) Geometric optics : Lens system design
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design
(110.1080) Imaging systems : Active or adaptive optics

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: August 16, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 30, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 23, 2011
Published: November 10, 2011

Antonin Miks and Jiri Novak, "Analysis of three-element zoom lens based on refractive variable-focus lenses," Opt. Express 19, 23989-23996 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. F. Ray, Applied photographic optics, (Focal Press, 2002).
  2. W. Smith, Modern optical engineering, 4th Ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2007).
  3. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics, (Oxford University Press, 1964).
  4. A. Miks, Applied optics (Czech Technical University Press, 2009).
  5. M. Herzberger, Modern geometrical optics (Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1958).
  6. A. D. Clark, Zoom lenses (Adam Hilger, 1973).
  7. K. Yamaji, Progres in optics, Vol.VI (North-Holland Publishing Co., 1967).
  8. A. Mikš, J. Novák, and P. Novák, “Method of zoom lens design,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6088–6098 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Mikš, “Modification of the formulas for third-order aberration coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(9), 1867–1871 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Pal and L. Hazra, “Ab initio synthesis of linearly compensated zoom lenses by evolutionary programming,” Appl. Opt. 50(10), 1434–1441 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33(3), 291–293 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402, 603402-9 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. http://www.varioptic.com
  15. http://www.optotune.com/
  16. H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 646–648 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249(1-3), 175–182 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11847–11857 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000). [CrossRef]
  22. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12(3), 255–259 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(11), 2644–2650 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Reichelt and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14146–14154 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. Peng, J. Chen, Ch. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6664–6669 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 22–26 (2007). [CrossRef]
  27. J.-H. Sun, B.-R. Hsueh, Y.-Ch. Fang, J. MacDonald, and C. C. Hu, “Optical design and multiobjective optimization of miniature zoom optics with liquid lens element,” Appl. Opt. 48(9), 1741–1757 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Miks, J. Novak, and P. Novak, “Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9034–9047 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Miks and J. Novak, “Analysis of two-element zoom systems based on variable power lenses,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6797–6810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Mikš and J. Novák, “Third-order aberrations of the thin refractive tunable-focus lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1031–1033 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Berek, Grundlagen der praktischen optik, (Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1970).
  32. R. E. Stephens, “The design of triplet anastigmat lenses of the Taylor type,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38(12), 1032–1039 (1948). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. W. Wallin, “Design study of air-spaced triplets,” Appl. Opt. 3(3), 421–426 (1964). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Laikin, Lens design, (CRC Press, 2006).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited