OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 3 — Jan. 31, 2011
  • pp: 2476–2484

Polarization switching and polarization mode hopping in quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

Lukasz Olejniczak, Krassimir Panajotov, Hugo Thienpont, Marc Sciamanna, Alex Mutig, Friedhelm Hopfer, and Dieter Bimberg  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 3, pp. 2476-2484 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3911 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We show experimentally that polarization mode hopping in quantum dot vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) takes place between nonorthogonal elliptically polarized modes. In contrast to quantum well VCSELs the average dwell time decreases with injection current. This decrease is by 8 orders of magnitude: from seconds to nanoseconds and is achieved without any modifications of the VCSEL internal anisotropies. The observed scaling happens in a range of currents as wide as 8 times the threshold value.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: November 4, 2010
Revised Manuscript: December 16, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: December 19, 2010
Published: January 25, 2011

Lukasz Olejniczak, Krassimir Panajotov, Hugo Thienpont, Marc Sciamanna, Alex Mutig, Friedhelm Hopfer, and Dieter Bimberg, "Polarization switching and polarization mode hopping in quantum dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Express 19, 2476-2484 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Hänggi, P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec, "Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers," Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 251-341 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Kramers, "Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusion model of chemical reactions," Physica 7, 284-304 (1940). [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, "Polarisation characteristics of quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 27, 163-165 (1991). [CrossRef]
  4. K. D. Choquette, R. P. Schneider, K. L. Lear, and R. E. Leibenguth, "Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical-cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 661-666 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Panajotov, J. Danckaert, G. Verschaffelt, M. Peeters, B. Nagler, J. Albert, B. Ryvkin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Polarization Behavior of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Experiments, Models and Applications," Proc. AIP 560, 403-417 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Willemsen, M. U. F. Khalid, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Polarization Switching of a Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Laser as a Kramers Hopping Problem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4815-4818 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Giacomelli and F. Marin, "Statistics of polarization competition in VCSELs," Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 469-476 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, T. Ackemann, J. Mulet, and S. Balle, "Two frequency emission and polarization dynamics at lasing threshold in vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033822 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kaiser, C. Degen, and W. Elsasser, "Polarization-switching influence on the intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 672-677 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Nagler, M. Peeters, J. Albert, G. Verschaffelt, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, J. Danckaert, S. Barbay, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, "Polarization-mode hopping in single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Theory and experiment," Phys. Rev. A 68, 013813 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Houlihan, D. Goulding, Th. Busch, C. Masoller, and G. Huyet, "Experimental Investigation of a Bistable System in the Presence of Noise and Delay," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 050601 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, "Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1543-1545 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Panajotov, M. Sciamanna, A. Tabaka, P. Megret, M. Blondel, G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, "Residence time distribution and coherence resonance of optical-feedback-induced polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Phys. Rev. A 69, 011801 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. I. Gatare, M. Triginer, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, and M. Sciamanna, "Experimental study of polarization switching and polarization mode hopping induced by optical injection in VCSELs," Proceedings Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Ghent, 143-146 (2004).
  15. U. Fiedler, G. Reiner, P. Schnitzer, and K. J. Ebeling, "Top surface-emitting vertical-cavity laser diodes for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 746-748 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, "Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113-1115 (1995). [CrossRef]
  17. L. Olejniczak, M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov, A. Mutig, F. Hopfer, and D. Bimberg, "Polarization Switching in Quantum-Dot Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1008-1010 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. F. Hopfer, A. Mutig, A. M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, D. Bimberg, N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, S. S. Mikhrin, D. L. Livshits, I. L. Krestnikov, A. R. Kovsh, N. D. Zakharov, and P. Werner, "Single-mode submonolayer quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with high modulation bandwidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141106 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Sondermann, T. Ackemanna, S. Balleb, J. Muletb, and K. Panajotov, "Experimental and theoretical investigations on elliptically polarized dynamical transition states in the polarization switching of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Commun. 235, 421-434 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited