OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Mar. 14, 2011
  • pp: 4868–4880

Clocking smear analysis and reduction for multi phase TDI CCD in remote sensing system

Dejiang Wang, Tao Zhang, and Haipeng Kuang  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 4868-4880 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1284 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Clocking smear caused by charge transfer of time delay and integration charge coupled device (TDI CCD) is the natural component in remote imaging sensing system, and it could not be eliminated by traditional motion compensation schemes. After researching on the operation of a typical three phase TDI CCD, we give a thorough understanding on causes of clocking smear. Then an elaborate mathematical model describing the charge transfer procedure is developed, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) losses due to charge transfer is also presented, which shows that nearly one pixel smear will be introduced by traditional phase timing. Therefore we propose a novel charge transfer method, using which only 1 / 2 ϕ pixel smear will occur within the imaging operation of a single TDI stage, where ϕ represents the number of timing phases. Finally, a series of image simulations are made for two, three and four phase TDI CCD in which clocking smear is caused by our and conventional charge transfer methods respectively. The experimental results confirm that image quality improvement can be achieved by our method.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.1520) Detectors : CCD, charge-coupled device
(110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
(010.0280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Remote sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing

Original Manuscript: January 10, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 16, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 16, 2011
Published: February 28, 2011

Dejiang Wang, Tao Zhang, and Haipeng Kuang, "Clocking smear analysis and reduction for multi phase TDI CCD in remote sensing system," Opt. Express 19, 4868-4880 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. U. Bastian and M. Biermann, “Astrometric meaning and interpretation of high-precision time delay integration CCD data,” Astron. Astrophys. 438(2), 745–755 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Hochman, Y. Yitzhaky, N. S. Kopeika, Y. Lauber, M. Citroen, and A. Stern, “Restoration of images captured by a staggered time delay and integration camera in the presence of mechanical vibrations,” Appl. Opt. 43(22), 4345–4354 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Iyenqar and D. Lange, “The Goodrich 3th generation DB-110 system: operational on tactical and unmanned aircraft,” Proc. SPIE 6209, 1–12 (2006).
  4. A. Lacan, F. M. Bréon, A. Rosak, F. Brachet, L. Roucayrol, P. Etcheto, C. Casteras, and Y. Salaiin, “A static Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric sounding: concept and experimental implementation,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8311–8331 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Zhang, “China’s 2nd lunar probe Chang’e-2 blasts off,” (English.xinhuanet.com, 2010) http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/sci/2010-10/01/c_13539035 .
  6. J. R. Jensen and D. C. Cowen, “Remote sensing of unban/suburban infrastructure and Socio-Economic Attributes,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 65(5), 611–622 (1999).
  7. J. L. Tong, M. Aydin, and H. E. Bedell, “Direction and extent of perceived motion smear during pursuit eye movement,” Vision Res. 47(7), 1011–1019 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. D. Fiete and T. Tantalo, “Image quality of increased along-scan sampling for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng. 38(5), 815–820 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. R. D. Fiete and T. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng. 40(4), 574–585 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. S. L. Smith, J. Mooney, T. A. Tantalo, and R. D. Fiete, “Understanding image quality losses due to smear in high resolution remote sensing imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 38(5), 821–826 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. S. G. Chamberlain and W. D. Washkurak, “High-speed, low-noise, fine-resolution TDI CCD imagers,” Proc. SPIE 1242, 1–12 (1990).
  12. T. B. Ma, Y. F. Guo, and Y. F. Li, “Precision of row frequency of scientific grade TDI CCD camera,” Opt. Precis. Eng. 18(9), 2028–2035 (2010).
  13. G. C. Holst, Electro-optical imaging system performance (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 2008).
  14. S. A. Cota, C. J. Florio, D. J. Duvall, and M. A. Leon, “The use of general image quality equation in the design and evaluation of imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 7458, 1–20 (2009).
  15. G. C. Holst, CMOS/CCD sensor and camera system (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 2007).
  16. J. R. Janesick, Scientific charge-coupled devices (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 2000).
  17. G. E. Healey and R. Kondepudy, “Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 16(3), 267–276 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. G. C. Holst, “Imaging system performance based upon Fλ/d,” Opt. Eng. 46(10), 1–8 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. P. X. Silveira and R. Narayanswamy, “Signal-to-noise analysis of task-based imaging systems with defocus,” Appl. Opt. 45(13), 2924–2934 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. J. Smith, Modern optical engineering (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2008).
  21. R. D. Fiete, “Image quality and λFN/p for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng. 38(7), 1229–1240 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited