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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Mar. 14, 2011
  • pp: 4868–4880

Clocking smear analysis and reduction for multi phase TDI CCD in remote sensing system

Dejiang Wang, Tao Zhang, and Haipeng Kuang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 4868-4880 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.004868


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Abstract

Clocking smear caused by charge transfer of time delay and integration charge coupled device (TDI CCD) is the natural component in remote imaging sensing system, and it could not be eliminated by traditional motion compensation schemes. After researching on the operation of a typical three phase TDI CCD, we give a thorough understanding on causes of clocking smear. Then an elaborate mathematical model describing the charge transfer procedure is developed, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) losses due to charge transfer is also presented, which shows that nearly one pixel smear will be introduced by traditional phase timing. Therefore we propose a novel charge transfer method, using which only 1 / 2 ϕ pixel smear will occur within the imaging operation of a single TDI stage, where ϕ represents the number of timing phases. Finally, a series of image simulations are made for two, three and four phase TDI CCD in which clocking smear is caused by our and conventional charge transfer methods respectively. The experimental results confirm that image quality improvement can be achieved by our method.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(040.1520) Detectors : CCD, charge-coupled device
(110.4100) Imaging systems : Modulation transfer function
(010.0280) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Remote sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing

History
Original Manuscript: January 10, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 16, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 16, 2011
Published: February 28, 2011

Citation
Dejiang Wang, Tao Zhang, and Haipeng Kuang, "Clocking smear analysis and reduction for multi phase TDI CCD in remote sensing system," Opt. Express 19, 4868-4880 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-4868


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