OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 6 — Mar. 14, 2011
  • pp: 5277–5282

Efficient KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2:Tm3+ channel waveguide lasers

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 6, pp. 5277-5282 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.005277


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1127 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Gd3+(29.5%)-Lu3+(29.0%)-Tm3+(1.5%) co-doped KY(WO4)2 layers were grown onto KY(WO4)2 substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy. Ridge-type channel waveguides with a thickness of 6.6 μm and a width of 7.5–12.5 μm were microstructured 1.5 μm deep by Ar+-beam milling and overgrown with pure KY(WO4)2 as a cladding layer. An upper limit of ~0.11 dB/cm for the waveguide propagation loss at the laser wavelength was determined. Laser experiments with butt-coupled dielectric mirrors demonstrated maximum output powers of 149 mW and 76 mW and slope efficiencies of 31.5% and 17.0% when pumping at 794 nm and 802 nm in TM and TE polarization, respectively. The lowest threshold was 7 mW. The laser wavelength was found to shift from 1930 nm via 1906 nm to 1846 nm for outcoupling efficiencies from 2% via 8% to 2 × 8%.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 24, 2011
Revised Manuscript: February 24, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 25, 2011
Published: March 7, 2011

Citation
K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, D. Geskus, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, "Efficient KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2:Tm3+ channel waveguide lasers," Opt. Express 19, 5277-5282 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-6-5277


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. R. Narasimhan, W. Goodman, and N. Patel, “Correlation of breath ammonia with blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during hemodialysis,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(8), 4617–4621 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. E. Webber, R. Claps, F. V. Englich, F. K. Tittel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Measurements of NH3 and CO2 with distributed-feedback diode lasers near 2.0 μm in bioreactor vent gases,” Appl. Opt. 40(24), 4395–4403 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. B. Timmer, W. Olthuis, and A. van den Berg, “Ammonia sensors and their applications – a review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 107(2), 666–677 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Webber, M. Pushkarsky, and C. K. N. Patel, “Fiber-amplifier-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with near-infrared tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2119–2126 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, E. Rochat, and L. Thévenaz, “Ammonia trace measurements at ppb level based on near-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 323–328 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Peng, W. Zhang, L. Li, and Q. Yu, “Tunable fiber laser and fiber amplifier based photoacoustic spectrometer for trace gas detection,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 74(4), 924–927 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Rieker, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Measurements of high-pressure CO2 absorption near 2.0 μm and implications on tunable diode laser sensor design,” Appl. Phys. B 94(1), 51–63 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. He, R. Kan, F. V. Englich, W. Liu, and B. J. Orr, “Simultaneous multi-laser, multi-species trace-level sensing of gas mixtures by rapidly swept continuous-wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20059–20071 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. P. Shepherd, D. J. B. Brinck, J. Wang, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, G. Kakarantzas, and P. D. Townsend, “1.9-µm operation of a Tm:lead germanate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(13), 954–956 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Rameix, C. Borel, B. Chambaz, B. Ferrand, D. P. Shepherd, T. J. Warburton, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, “An efficient, diode-pumped, 2 µm Tm:YAG waveguide laser,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 239–243 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. J. I. Mackenzie, S. C. Mitchell, R. J. Beach, H. E. Meissner, and D. P. Shepherd, “15 W diode-side-pumped Tm:YAG waveguide laser at 2 µm,” Electron. Lett. 37(14), 898–899 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. E. Cantelar, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, and P. L. Pernas, “Single polarized Tm3+ laser in Zn-diffused LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161119 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. F. Fusari, R. R. Thomson, G. Jose, F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, N. D. Psaila, A. K. Kar, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Tm3+:germanate glass waveguide laser at 1.9 μm,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2010), paper CTuU5.
  14. M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Gardillou, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, R.-P. Salathé, and M. Pollnau, “Lu, Gd codoped KY(WO(4))(2):Yb epitaxial layers: towards integrated optics based on KY(WO(4))(2).,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 488–490 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low-threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb3+ planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(11), 800–805 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “High-power, broadly tunable, and low-quantum-defect KGd(1-x)Lu(x)(WO(4))(2):Yb(3+) channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26107–26112 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Rivier, X. Mateos, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, F. Gardillou, and M. Pollnau, “Tm:KY(WO(4))(2) waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5885–5892 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. V. Petrov, F. Güell, J. Massons, J. Gavalda, R. M. Sole, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, and U. Grieber, “Efficient tunable laser operation of Tm:KGd(WO4)2 in the continuous-wave regime at room temperature,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1244–1251 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, and S. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Growth of β-KGd1‑xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169(3), 600–603 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Microstructured KY(WO4)2:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8853–8858 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. E. Troshin, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, E. B. Dunina, and A. A. Kornienko, “Spectroscopy and laser properties of Tm3+:KY(WO4)2 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 287–292 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. J. R. Salcedo, J. M. Sousa, and V. V. Kuzmin, “Theoretical treatment of relaxation oscillations in quasi-three-level systems,” Appl. Phys. B 62(1), 83–85 (1996). [CrossRef]
  27. F. Güell, Jna. Gavaldà, R. Solé, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, M. Galan, and J. Massons, “1.48 and 1.84 μm thulium emissions in monoclinic KGd(WO4)2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 919–923 (2004).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited