OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijin de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 7 — Mar. 28, 2011
  • pp: 6671–6683

Transport of orbital-angular-momentum entanglement through a turbulent atmosphere

Bart-Jan Pors, C. H. Monken, Eric R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 7, pp. 6671-6683 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.006671


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1311 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally how orbital-angular-momentum entanglement of two photons evolves under the influence of atmospheric turbulence. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with our theoretical model, which combines the formalism of two-photon coincidence detection with a Kolmogorov description of atmospheric turbulence. We express the robustness to turbulence in terms of the dimensionality of the measured correlations. This dimensionality is surprisingly robust: scaling up our system to real-life dimensions, a horizontal propagation distance of 2 km seems viable.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
(030.7060) Coherence and statistical optics : Turbulence
(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 1, 2010
Revised Manuscript: February 18, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: February 20, 2011
Published: March 24, 2011

Citation
Bart-Jan Pors, C. H. Monken, Eric R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Transport of orbital-angular-momentum entanglement through a turbulent atmosphere," Opt. Express 19, 6671-6683 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-7-6671


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Mair, G. W. A. Vaziri, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons," Nature 412, 313-316 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Kawase, Y. Miyamoto, M. Takeda, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Observing quantum correlation of photons in Laguerre-Gauss modes using the Gouy phase," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 050501 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pors, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, A. Aiello, M. P. van Exter, E. R. Eliel, G. W. ’t Hooft, and J. P. Woerdman, "Shannon dimensionality of quantum channels and its application to photon entanglement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 120502 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Creating high dimensional entanglement using modelocked lasers," Quant. Inf. Comput. 2, 425-433 (2002).
  6. I. Ali-Khan, C. J. Broadbent, and J. C. Howell, "Large-alphabet quantum key distribution using energy-time entangled bipartite states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060503 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Durt, D. Kaszlikowski, J.-L. Chen, and L. C. Kwek, "Security of quantum key distributions with entangled qudits," Phys. Rev. A 69, 032313 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. ˇ. C. Brukner, T. Paternek, and M. ˙. Zukowski, "Quantum communication complexity protocols based on higher dimensional entangled systems," Int. J. Quantum Inf. 1, 519-525 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. B.-J. Pors, C. H. Monken, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Transport of orbital-angular-momentum entanglement through a turbulent atmosphere," arXiv:0909.3750v1 [quant-ph] (2010).
  10. A. Poppe, A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, H. R. Böhm, T. Lorünser, O. Maurhardt, M. Peev, M. Suda, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, "Practical quantum key distribution with polarization entangled photons," Opt. Express 12, 3865-3871 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Zhang, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, X. Xie, B. Baek, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors," Opt. Express 16, 5776-5781 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Salart, A. Baas, C. Branciard, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "Testing the speed of ’spooky action at a distance’," Nature 454, 861-864 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. J. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. R. Böhm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing entanglement and single photons through an intra-city, free-space quantum channel," Opt. Express 13, 202-209 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13 km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Ömer, M. Fürst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-based quantum communication over 144 km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Paterson, "Atmospheric turbulence and orbital angular momentum of single photons for optical communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153901 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, "Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 12, 5448-5456 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. J. Smith and M. G. Raymer, "Two-photon wave mechanics," Phys. Rev. A 74, 062104 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Gopaul and R. Andrews, "The effect of atmospheric turbulence on entangled orbital angular momentum states," N. J. Phys. 9, 94 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Gbur and R. K. Tyson, "Vortex beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and topological charge conservation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 225-230 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Anguita, M. A. Neifeld, and B. V. Vasic, "Turbulence-induced channel crosstalk in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed free-space optical link," Appl. Opt. 47, 2414-2429 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. P. Walborn, D. S. Lemelle, D. S. Tasca, and P. H. Souto Ribeiro, "Schemes for quantum key distribution with higher-order alphabets using single-photon fractional Fourier optics," Phys. Rev. A 77, 062323 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. G. A. Tyler and R. W. Boyd, "Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of quantum states of light carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Lett. 34, 142-144 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. S. Roux, "Decoherence of orbital angular momentum entanglement in a turbulent atmosphere," arXiv:1009.1956v2 [physics.optics] (2010).
  25. J. P. Torres, A. Alexandrescu, and L. Torner, "Quantum spiral bandwidth of entangled two-photon states," Phys. Rev. A 68, 050301 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. Within the mode space our analyzers have access to, we can safely approximate cl p to be independent of l.
  27. M. P. van Exter, P. S. K. Lee, S. Doesburg, and J. P. Woerdman, "Mode counting in high-dimensional orbital angular momentum entanglement," Opt. Express 15, 6431-6438 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. B. Pors, A. Aiello, S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, M. P. van Exter, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, "Angular phase plate analyzers for measuring the dimensionality of multi-mode fields," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033845 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, "Hot-air optical turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization," Appl. Opt. 45, 4888-4897 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. V. I. Tatarski, Wave propagation in a turbulent medium, 2nd ed. (Dover Publications Inc., 1961)
  31. D. L. Fried, "Optical resolution through a randomly inhomogeneous medium for very long and very short exposures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1372-1379 (1966). [CrossRef]
  32. R. L. Fante, "Electromagnetic beam propagation in turbulent media," Proc. IEEE 63, 1669-1692 (1975). [CrossRef]
  33. R. L. Lucke and C. Y. Young, "Theoretical wave structure function when the effect of the outer scale is significant," Appl. Opt. 46, 559-569 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. B. M. Levine, E. A. Martinsen, A. Wirth, A. Jankevics, M. Toledo-Quinones, F. Landers, and T. L. Bruno, "Horizontal line-of-sight turbulence over near-ground paths and implications for adaptive optics corrections in laser communications," Appl. Opt. 37, 4553-4560 (1998). [CrossRef]
  35. L. Kral, I. Prochazka, and K. Hamal, "Optical signal path delay fluctuations caused by atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Lett. 30, 1767-1769 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. T. Schmitt-Manderbach, "Long distance free-space quantum key distribution," Ph.D. thesis, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (2007).
  37. B. Schumacher, "Sending entanglement through noisy quantum channels," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2614-2628 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. B. Plenio and S. Virmani, "An introduction to entanglement measures," arXiv:quant-ph/0504163v3 (2006).
  39. S. Ryu, W. Cai, and A. Caro, "Quantum entanglement of formation between qudits," Phys. Rev. A 77, 052312 (2008). [CrossRef]
  40. W. K. Wootters, "Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245-2248 (1998). [CrossRef]
  41. A. K. Jha, G. A. Tyler, and R. W. Boyd, "Effects of atmospheric turbulence on the entanglement of spatial two-qubit states," Phys. Rev. A 81, 053832 (2010). [CrossRef]
  42. We note that in our experiment we have turbulence in one arm only. For this case, the Shannon dimensionality can be generalized as D = Tr(〈ρA〉tρB)/Tr(〈ρA〉t,α 〈ρB〉β). It can be shown that this reduces to Eq. (7) when one has similar but weaker turbulence in both arms.
  43. In this limit for extreme turbulence, the azimuthal fingerprint of the analyzer mode is fully wiped out. The detection state thus becomes circularly isotropic, leading to D = 1.
  44. D. L. Fried, "Anisoplanism in adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 52-61 (1982). [CrossRef]
  45. R. A. Johnston, N. J. Wooder, F. C. Reavell, M. Bernhardt, and C. Dainty, "Horizontal scintillation detection and ranging C2 n estimation," Appl. Opt. 42, 3451-3459 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, and R. Q. Fugate, "Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes," Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437-505 (1997). [CrossRef]
  47. S.-X. Li, Y.-F. Fu, Y.-L. Huang, J.-G. Li, and J.-T. Mao, "Calculation and statistical analysis of the Fried parameter r0 of astronomical seeing in China," Chin. Astron. Astrophys. 28, 222-237 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material


» Media 1: AVI (1488 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1478 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (1088 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited