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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: J. H. Eberly
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 4 — Feb. 16, 1998
  • pp: 163–168

Numerical simulation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

Benjamin Klein, Leonard F. Register, Matthew Grupen, and Karl Hess  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 163-168 (1998)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.2.000163


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Abstract

The semiconductor laser simulator MINILASE is being extended to simulate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The electronic system analysis for VCSELs is identical to that for edge emitting lasers. A brief discussion of the capabilities of MINILASE in this domain will be presented. In order to simulate VCSELs, the optical mode solver in MINILASE must be extended to handle the reduced index guiding and significant gain guiding typical of many VCSEL structures. A new approach to solving the optical problem which employs active cavity modes rather than the standard passive cavity modes is developed. This new approach results in an integral eigenvalue equation in required gain amplitudes and corresponding modal fields. Sample results from an early implementation of a gain eigenvalue solver are shown to clarify the possibilities of this approach.

© Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers

ToC Category:
Focus Issue: Quantum well laser design

History
Original Manuscript: October 15, 1997
Published: February 16, 1998

Citation
Benjamin Klein, Leonard Register, Matthew Grupen, and Karl Hess, "Numerical simulation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers," Opt. Express 2, 163-168 (1998)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-2-4-163


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References

  1. D. Burak and R. Binder, "Cold-Cavity Vectorial Eigenmodes of VCSEL's," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1205-1215 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. C.C. Lin and D.G. Deppe, "Self-Consistent Calculation of Lasing Modes in a Planar Microcavity," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 575-580 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Bissessur and K. Iga, "FD-BPM Modeling of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers," Proc. SPIE 2994, 150-158 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. G.R. Hadley, K.L. Lear, M.E. Warren, K.D. Choquette, J.W. Scott, and S.W. Corzine, "Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 607-616 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Grupen, G. Kosinovsky, and K. Hess, "The eect of carrier capture on the modulation bandwidth of quantum well lasers," in Proceedings of the International Electron Devices Meeting, (IEEE Electron Devices Society, Washington, D.C., 1993) pp. 23.6.1-23.6.4.
  6. S. Selberherr, Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices (Springer-Verlag, Wien-New York, 1984). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Grupen, K. Hess, and G.H. Song, "Simulation of transport over heterojunctions," in Proc. 4th International Conf. Simul. Semicon. Dev. Process., Vol. 4 (IEEE Electron Devices Society, Zurich, 1991) p. 303-311.
  8. M. Grupen and K. Hess, "Severe gain suppression due to dynamic carrier heating in quantum well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 808-810 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Grupen and K. Hess, "Simulation of carrier transport and nonlinearities in quantum well laser diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 120-140 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. G.P. Agrawal and N.K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers, Second Edition (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1993) pp. 39-55.
  11. W.C. Chew, Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990) pp. 57-79, 375-418.

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